For the integrated multidisciplinary approach to patient care

Return to the Southern Medical Journal

Current User S2 Access Level: -1 ()
CAN NOT ACCESS LEVEL 2

Asperger Disorder in Adults

Manu Arora, MBBS, MD, DPM, Samir Kumar Praharaj, MBBS, MD, DPM, Sujit Sarkhel, MBBS, MD, DPM, Vinod Kumar Sinha, MBBS, MD, DPM
Volume: 4 Issue: 4 April, 2011

Abstract:

Asperger disorder was first described in 1944 by the Austrian pediatrician, Hans Asperger. It was introduced as a separate diagnostic category from autistic disorder in DSM-IV and ICD-10. The pattern of comorbidity in Asperger disorder is different from autistic disorder, with a higher level of psychosis, violent behavior, anxiety, and mood disorders. We present three cases of Asperger disorder diagnosed for the first time in adulthood, with psychosis being the predominant reason for the referral. In each case, the psychosis improved with antipsychotic treatment, although core autistic symptoms remained the same.

Article:

This content is limited to qualifying members. Please click on an option below to view in full. Click here to compare all member plans.

Member Login

Silver/Gold members login for full access. Other members login to view purchase options.

Create a New Account

Create a new complimentary account/login to view purchase options.

Images:

This content is limited to qualifying members. Please click on an option below to view in full. Click here to compare all member plans.

Member Login

Silver/Gold members login for full access. Other members login to view purchase options.

Create a New Account

Create a new complimentary account/login to view purchase options.

References:

1. Asperger H. Die 'Autistischen Psychopathen' im Kindesalter. Arch Psychiatr Nervenkr 1944;117:76-136.
 
2. Wing L. Asperger syndrome: a clinical account. Psychol Med 1981;11:115-129.
 
3. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 1994, ed 4.
 
4. World Health Organization. International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1992.
 
5. Fombonne E, Tidmarsh L. Epidemiologic data on Asperger disorder. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2003;12:15-21, v-vi.
 
6. Ehlers S, Gillberg C. The epdemiology of Asperger syndrome. A total population study. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 1993;34:1327-1350.
 
7. Szatmari P, Archer L, Fisman S, et al. Asperger's syndrome and autism: differences in behavior, cognition, and adaptive functioning. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1995;34:1662-1671.
 
8. Ozonoff S, Rogers SJ, Pennington BF. Asperger's syndrome: evidence of an empirical distinction from high-functioning autism. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 1991;32:1107-1122.
 
9. Volkmar FR, Klin A, Schultz RT, et al. Asperger's disorder. Am J Psychiatry 2000;157:262-267.
 
10. Khouzam HR, El-Gabalawi F, Pirwani N, et al. Asperger's disorder: a review of its diagnosis and treatment. Compr Psychiatry 2004;45:184-191.
 
11. Lord C, Rutter M, Le Couteur A. Autism diagnostic interview-revised: a revised version of a diagnostic interview for caregivers of individuals with possible pervasive developmental disorders. J Autism Dev Disord 1994;24:659-685.
 
12. Lord C, Risi S, Lambrecht L, et al. The autism diagnostic observation schedule-generic: a standard measure of social and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autism. J Autism Dev Disord 2000;30:205-223.
 
13. Krug DA, Arick JR. Krug Asperger Disorder Index. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed Inc, 2003.
 
14. Gilliam JE. Gilliam Asperger Disorder Scale. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed Inc, 2001.
 
15. Scott FJ, Baron-Cohen S, Bolton P, et al. The CAST (Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test): preliminary development of a UK screen for mainstream primary-school-age children. Autism 2002;6:9-31.
 
16. Matson JL, Wilkins J. Nosology and diagnosis of Asperger's syndrome. Res Autism Spectr Disord 2008;2:288-300.
 
17. Shopler E, Mesibow G, Kunce L. Asperger Syndrome or High Functioning Autism? New York: Plenum, 1998.
 
18. Frith C. Is autism a disconnection disorder? Lancet Neurol 2004;3:577.
 
19. Nieminen-von Wendt TS, Metsähonkala L, Kulomäki TA, et al. Increased presynaptic dopamine function in Asperger syndrome. Neuroreport 2004;15:757-760.
 
20. Murphy DG, Daly E, Schmitz N, et al. Cortical serotonin 5-HT2A receptor binding and social communication in adults with Asperger's syndrome: an in vivo SPECT study. Am J Psychiatry 2006;163:934-936.
 
21. Ellis HD, Gunter HL. Asperger syndrome: a simple matter of white matter? Trends Cogn Sci 1999;3:192-200.
 
22. White SW, Keonig K, Scahill L. Social skills development in children with autism spectrum disorders: a review of the intervention literature. J Autism Dev Disord 2007;37:1858-1868.
 
23. Rao PA, Beidel DC, Murray MJ. Social skills interventions for children with Asperger's syndrome or high-functioning autism: a review and recommendations. J Autism Dev Disord 2008;38:353-361.
 
24. Cappadocia MC, Weiss JA. Review of social skills training groups for youth with Asperger syndrome and high functioning autism. Res Autism Spectr Disord 2011;5:70-78.
 
25. Paul R. Promoting social communication in high functioning individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2003;12:87-106.
 
26. Chan JM, Lang R, Rispoli M, et al. Use of peer-mediated interventions in the treatment of autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review. Res Autism Spectr Disord 2009;3:876-889.
 
27. Attwood T. Frameworks for behavioral interventions. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2003;12:65-86, vi.
 
28. Myles BS. Behavioral forms of stress management for individuals with Asperger syndrome. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2003;12:123-141.
 
29. Towbin KE. Strategies for pharmacologic treatment of high functioning autism and Asperger syndrome. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2003;12:23-45.
 
30. Gordon CT, State RC, Nelson JE, et al. A double-blind comparison of clomipramine, desipramine, and placebo in the treatment of autistic disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1993;50:441-447.
 
31. McDougle CJ, Naylor ST, Cohen DJ, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of fluvoxamine in adults with autistic disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1996;53:1001-1008.
 
32. Jaselskis CA, Cook EH Jr, Fletcher KE, et al. Clonidine treatment of hyperactive and impulsive children with autistic disorder. J Clin Psychopharmacol 1992;12:322-327.
 
33. Connor DF, Ozbayrak KR, Benjamin S, et al. A pilot study of nadolol for overt aggression in developmentally delayed individuals. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1997;36:826-834.
 
34. Hollander E, Dolgoff-Kaspar R, Cartwright C, et al. An open trial of divalproex sodium in autism spectrum disorders. J Clin Psychiatry 2001;62:530-534.
 
35. Barnard L, Young AH, Pearson J, et al. A systematic review of the use of atypical antipsychotics in autism. J Psychopharmacol 2002;16:93-101.
 
36. Buitelaar JK, van der Gaag RJ, van der Hoeven J. Buspirone in the management of anxiety and irritability in children with pervasive developmental disorders: results of an open-label study. J Clin Psychiatry 1998;59:56-59.
 
37. Quintana H, Birmaher B, Stedge D, et al. Use of methylphenidate in the treatment of children with autistic disorder. J Autism Dev Disord 1995;25:283-294.
 
38. Aman MG, Langworthy KS. Pharmacotherapy for hyperactivity in children with autism and other pervasive developmental disorders. J Autism Dev Disord 2000;30:451-459.
 
39. Willemsen-Swinkels SH, Buitelaar JK, van Engeland H. The effects of chronic naltrexone treatment in young autistic children: a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study. Biol Psychiatry 1996;39:1023-1031.
 
40. Clarke DJ, LittleJohns CS, Corbett JA, et al. Pervasive developmental disorders and psychoses in adult life. Br J Psychiatry 1989;155:692-699.
 
41. Clarke D, Baxter M, Perry D, et al. The diagnosis of affective and psychotic disorders in adults with autism: seven case reports. Autism 1999;3:149-164.
 
42. Abell F, Hare DJ. An experimental investigation of the phenomenology of delusional beliefs in people with Asperger syndrome. Autism 2005;9:515-531.
 
43. Frith CD, Corcoran R. Exploring 'theory of mind' in people with schizophrenia. Psychol Med 1996;26:521-530.
 
44. South M, Ozonoff S, McMahon WM. Repetitive behavior profiles in Asperger syndrome and high-functioning autism. J Autism Dev Disord 2005;35:145-158.
 
45. Turner M. Annotation: repetitive behavior in autism: a review of psychological research. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 1999;40:839-849.
 
46. Benvenuto A, Moavero R, Alessandrelli R, et al. Syndromic autism: causes and pathogenetic pathways. World J Pediatr 2009;5:169-176.
 
47. Moss J, Howlin P. Autism spectrum disorders in genetic syndromes: implications for diagnosis, intervention and understanding the wider autism spectrum disorder population. J Intellect Disabil Res2009;53:852-873.
 
48. Miller MT, Strömland K, Ventura L, et al. Autism with ophthalmologic malformations: the plot thickens. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 2004;102:107-120; discussion 120-121.

CME:

Portions of this issue may be available for CME credit. Please email education@sma.org for a complete listing of current Southern Medical Journal activities, as well as other SMA educational offerings.

This content is limited to qualifying members. Please click on an option below to view in full. Click here to compare all member plans.

Member Login

Silver/Gold members login for full access. Other members login to view purchase options.

Create a New Account

Create a new complimentary account/login to view purchase options.

This content is limited to qualifying members. Please click on an option below to view in full. Click here to compare all member plans.

Member Login

Silver/Gold members login for full access. Other members login to view purchase options.

Create a New Account

Create a new complimentary account/login to view purchase options.

Permissions