1. Lewis R, Drebin JA, Callery MP, et al. A contemporary analysis of survival for resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.HPB (Oxford)2013;15:49-60.
2. Harsha HC, Kandasamy K, Ranganathan P, et al. A compendium of potential biomarkers of pancreatic cancer. PLoS Med 2009;6:e1000046.
3. Biomarkers Deﬁnitions Working Group. Biomarkers and surrogate endpoints: preferred deﬁnitions and conceptual framework. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2001;69:89-95.
4. Ballehaninna UK, Chamberlain RS. The clinical utility of serum CA 19-9 in the diagnosis, prognosis and management of pancreatic adenocarcinoma: an evidence based appraisal. J Gastrointest Oncol 2012;3:105-119.
5. Locker GY, Hamilton S, Harris J, et al. ASCO 2006 update of recommendations for the use of tumor markers in gastrointestinal cancer. J Clin Oncol 2006;24:5313-5327.
6. Berger AC, Garcia M Jr, Hoffman JP, et al. Postresection CA 19-9 predicts overall survival in patients with pancreatic cancer treated with adjuvant chemoradiation: a prospective validation by RTOG 9704. J Clin Oncol 2008;26:5918-5922.
7. Humphris JL, Chang DK, Johns AL, et al. The prognostic and predictive value of serumCA19.9 in pancreatic cancer. Ann Oncol2012;23:1713-1722.
8. Reni M, Cereda S, Balzano G, et al. Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 change during chemotherapy for advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Cancer 2009;115:2630-2639.
9. Halm U, Schumann T, Schiefke I, et al. Decrease of CA 19-9 during chemotherapy with gemcitabine predicts survival time in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. Br J Cancer 2000;82:1013-1016.
10. Goonetilleke KS, Siriwardena AK. Systematic review of carbohydrate antigen (CA 19-9) as a biochemical marker in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. Eur J Surg Oncol 2007;33:266-270.
11. Duraker N, Hot S, Polat Y, et al. CEA, CA 19-9, and CA 125 in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant pancreatic diseases with or without jaundice. J Surg Oncol 2007;95:142-47.
12. Waldman SA, Hyslop T, Schulz S, et al. Association of GUCY2C expression in lymph nodes with time to recurrence and disease-free survival in pN0 colorectal cancer. JAMA 2009;301:745-752.
13. Paik S, Shak S, Tang G, et al. A multigene assay to predict recurrence of tamoxifen-treated, node-negative breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2004;351:2817-2826.
14. Chapman PB, Hauschild A, Robert C, et al. Improved survival with vemurafenib in melanoma with BRAF V600E mutation. N Engl J Med 2011;364:2507-2716.
15. Van Cutsem E, Kohne CH, Hitre E, et al. Cetuximab and chemotherapy as initial treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer. N Engl J Med 2009;360:408-1417.
16. Ribic CM, Sargent DJ, Moore MJ, et al. Tumor microsatellite-instability status vas a predictor of beneﬁt from ﬂuorouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy for colon cancer. N Engl J Med 2003;349:247-257.
17. Fong ZV, Winter JM. Biomarkers in pancreatic cancer: diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive. Cancer J 2012;18:530-538.
18. Koopmann J, Buckhaults P, Brown DA, et al. Serum macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1 as a marker of pancreatic and other periampullary cancers. Clin Cancer Res 2004;10:2386:2392.
19. Koopmann J, Fedarko NS, Jain A, et al. Evaluation of osteopontin as biomarker for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2004;13:487-491.
20. Ozkan H, Kaya M, Cengiz A. Comparison of tumor marker CA 242 with CA 19-9 and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in pancreatic cancer. Hepatogastroenterology 2003;50:1669-1674.
21. Dabritz J, Preston R, Hanﬂer J, et al. Follow-up study of K-ras mutations in the plasma of patients with pancreatic cancer: correlation with clinical features and carbohydrate antigen 19-9. Pancreas 2009;38:534-541.
22. Sturm PD, Hruban RH, Ramsoekh TB, et al. The potential diagnostic use of K-ras codon 12 and p53 alterations in brush cytology from the pancreatic head region. J Pathol 1998;186:247-253.
23. Brand RE, Nolen BM, Zeh HJ, et al. Serum biomarker panels for the detection of pancreatic cancer. Clin Cancer Res 2011;17:805-816.
24. Ohuchida K, Mizumoto K, Egami T, et al. S100P is an early developmental marker of pancreatic carcinogenesis.Clin Cancer Res 2006;12:5411-5416.
25. OuYang D, Xu J, Huang H, et al. Metabolomic proﬁling of serum from human pancreatic cancer patients using 1H NMR spectroscopy and principal component analysis. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2011;165:148-154.
26. Liu R, Chen X, Du Y, et al. Serum microRNA expression proﬁle as a biomarker in the diagnosis and prognosis of pancreatic cancer. Clin Chem 2012;58:610-618.
27. Bausch D, Thomas S, Mino-Kenudson M, et al. Plectin-1 as a novel biomarker for pancreatic cancer. Clin Cancer Res 2011;17:302-309.
28. Corcoran RB, Contino G, Deshpande V, et al. STAT3 plays a critical role in KRAS-induced pancreatic tumorigenesis. Cancer Res 2011;71:1-10.
29. Gold DV, Karanjawala Z, Modrak DE, et al. PAM4-reactive MUC1 is a biomarker for early pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Clin Cancer Res 2007;13:7380-7387.
30. Jones S, Zhang X, Parsons DW, et al. Core signaling pathways in human pancreatic cancers revealed by global genomic analyses. Science 2008;321:1801-1806.
31. Khaled YS, Elkord E, Ammori BJ. Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1: a review of its pleiotropic actions in cancer. Cancer Biomark 2012;11:183-190.
32. Poruk KE, Firpo MA, Scaife CL, et al. Serum osteopontin and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Pancreas 2013;42:193-197.
33. Almoguera C, Shibata D, Forrester K, et al. Most human carcinomas of the exocrine pancreas contain mutant c-K-ras genes. Cell 1988;53:549-554.
34. Singh P, Srinivasan R, Wig JD. Major molecular markers in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and their roles in screening, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. Pancreas 2011;40:644-652.
35. Hustinx SR, Leoni LM, Yeo CJ, et al. Concordant loss of MTAP and p16/CDKN2A expression in pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia: evidence of homozygous deletion in a noninvasive precursor lesion. Mod Pathol 2005;18:959-963.
36. van Heek T, Rader AE, Offerhaus GJ, et al. K-ras, p53, and DPC4 (MAD4) alterations in ﬁne-needle aspirates of the pancreas: a molecular panel correlates with and supplements cytologic diagnosis. Am J Clin Pathol 2002;117:755-765.
37. Gronborg M, Bunkenborg J, Kristiansen TZ, et al. Comprehensive proteomic analysis of human pancreatic juice. J Proteome Res 2004;3:1042-1055.
38. Wingren C, Sandstrom A, Segersvard R, et al. Identiﬁcation of serum biomarker signatures associated with pancreatic cancer. Cancer Res 2012;72:2481-2490.
39. Kell DB. Metabolomic biomarkers: search, discovery and validation. Expert Rev Mol Diagn 2007;7:329-333.
40. LaConti JJ, Shivapurkar N, Preet A, et al. Tissue and serum microRNAs in the Kras(G12D) transgenic animal model and in patients with pancreatic cancer. PLoS One 2011;6:e20687.
41. He X, Zheng Z, Li J, et al. DJ-1 promotes invasion and metastasis of pancreatic cancer cells by activating SRC/ERK/uPA. Carcinogenesis 2012;33:555-562.
42. Crane CH, Varadhachary GR, Yordy JS, et al. Phase II trial of cetuximab, gemcitabine, and oxaliplatin followed by chemoradiation with cetuximab for locally advanced (T4) pancreatic adenocarcinoma: correlation of Smad4(Dpc4) immunostaining with pattern of disease progression. J Clin Oncol 2011;29:3037-3043.
43. Winter JM, Tang LH, Klimstra DS, et al. Failure patterns in resected pancreas adenocarcinoma: lack of predicted beneﬁt to SMAD4 expression. Ann Surg 2013;258:331-335.
44. Stratford JK, Bentrem DJ, Anderson JM, et al. A six-gene signature predicts survival of patients with localized pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. PLoS Med 2010;7:e1000307.
45. Uchikura K, Takao S, Nakajo A, et al. Intraoperative molecular detection of circulating tumor cells by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in patients with biliary-pancreatic cancer is associated with hematogenous metastasis. Ann Surg Oncol 2002;9:364-370.
46. Perez-Torras S, Garcıa-Manteiga J, Mercade´ E, et al. Adenoviral-mediated overexpression of human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hENT1) enhances gemcitabine response in human pancreatic cancer. Biochem Pharmacol 2008;76:322-329.
47. Akita H, Zheng Z, Takeda Y, et al. Signiﬁcance of RRM1 and ERCC1 expression in resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Oncogene 2009;28:2903-2909.
48. Richards NG, Rittenhouse DW, Freydin B, et al. HuR status is a powerful marker for prognosis and response to gemcitabine-based chemotherapy for resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patients. Ann Surg 2010;252:499-506.
49. Mantoni TS, Schendel RR, Rodel F, et al. Stromal SPARC expression and patient survival after chemoradiation for non-resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Cancer Biol Ther 2008;7:1806-1815.
50. Donahue TR, Tran LM, Hill R, et al. Integrative survival-based molecular proﬁling of human pancreatic cancer.Clin Cancer Res 2012;18:1352-1363.
51. Winter JM, Tang LH, Klimstra DS, et al. A novel survival-based tissue microarray of pancreatic cancer validates MUC1 and mesothelin as biomarkers. PLoS One 2012;7:e40157.
52. Rhim AD, Mirek ET, Aiello NM, et al. EMT and dissemination precede pancreatic tumor formation. Cell 2012;148:349-361.
53. Khoja L, Backen A, Sloane R, et al. A pilot study to explore circulating tumour cells in pancreatic cancer as a novel biomarker. Br J Cancer 2012;106:508-517.
54. Alberts SR. K-ras inhibitors and pancreatic cancer. In: Lowy AM, Leach SD, Philip PA, eds. Pancreatic Cancer: M.D. Anderson Solid Tumor Oncology Series. New York: Springer; 2008:601-607.
55. Gallmeier E, Kern SE. Targeting Fanconi anemia/BRCA2 pathway defects in cancer: the signiﬁcance of preclinical pharmacogenomic models. Clin Cancer Res 2007;13:4-10.