Rural Religious Leaders’ Perspectives on their Communities’ Health Priorities and Health

Objectives: In traditionally underserved communities, faith-based interventions have been shown to be effective for health promotion. Religious leaders—generally the major partner in such interventions—however, are seldom are consulted about community health priorities and health promotion preferences. These insights are critical to ensure productive partnerships, effective programming, and sustainability. Methods: Mixed-methods surveys...

Commentary on “Factors Influencing Injury Severity of Bicyclists Involved in Crashes with Motor Vehicles: Bike Lanes, Alcohol, Lighting, Speed, and Helmet Use”

Many of us can remember receiving our first bicycle as a young child. This is the first sense of freedom that many children experience—having basic transportation. Whether it was used to ride across the street, around the block, or across town, at a young age this concept was exhilarating....

Factors Influencing Injury Severity of Bicyclists Involved in Crashes with Motor Vehicles: Bike Lanes, Alcohol, Lighting, Speed, and Helmet Use

Objectives: In 2014, 726 bicyclists were killed and an additional 50,000 were injured in crashes with motor vehicles. The number of cyclists in the United States is increasing, and as a result there has been a call for more bike lanes. We examined the difference in the severity of injury of bicyclists involved in motor vehicle crashes when riding in the traffic lane compared with riding in a bike lane or on a paved shoulder. We also controlled...

Free Lung Cancer Screening Trends Toward a Twofold Increase in Lung Cancer Prevalence in the Underserved Southeastern United States

Objectives: The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) reported that the prevalence of lung cancer in individuals at high risk for the disease is 1%, and that screening these individuals using low-dose helical computed tomography of the chest saves lives. To increase screening accessibility in the underserved southeastern United States, we developed a free lung screening program, modeled after the Lahey Hospital & Medical Center Free Lung...

Disparities in Cancer Survivorship Indicators in the Deep South Based on BRFSS Data: Recommendations for Survivorship Care Plans

Objectives: The purpose of this investigation was to describe cancer survivorship based on the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) cancer survivorship modules in Alabama, Georgia, and Mississippi, conducted in 2012 and 2014, and to investigate disparities across the US Deep South region. Methods: The optional BRFSS cancer survivorship module was introduced in 2009. Data from Alabama (2012), Georgia (2012), and Mississippi...

Planning for the Next Epidemic

Recent American public health concerns have included two emerging viral infection threats, zika and Ebola, and the recrudescence of the measles virus. Zika confirms the opinion that even when a disease vector, such as a mosquito, for a viral disease is well defined, it may be difficult to eliminate that vector from the human environment. In turn, Ebola exposed the striking gaps in preparedness of the American healthcare infrastructure for the...

Human Medicines Inappropriately Used in Animals Come at a Much Lower Cost

To the Editor: A patient who presented with diarrhea was diagnosed as having inflammatory bowel disease. His gastroenterologist prescribed budesonide, a nonabsorbable glucocorticoid that was patented in 1965. A 1-month supply of the generic version of this drug was offered by his pharmacist at a cost of...

Perceptions of the Exercise Is Medicine Initiative in a Geographically Defined Deep South Population

Objectives: To examine the population’s perceptions of the Exercise Is Medicine (EiM) initiative, as well as factors that influence the accurate perception of the EiM. Methods: Participants (N = 179; 24 primary care advanced-level practitioners, 79 exercise science students, and 76 people from the general population) residing in Oxford, Mississippi, were surveyed for this study. Results: Only 34.7% of advanced-care practitioners, 20.2%...

The 1918–1919 Influenza Pandemic and National Amnesia

Suppose that this year a dangerous, highly contagious disease sweeps across the world. One-fourth of the population catches it, and at least 200 million die in only a few months. In the United States alone, 80 million people become sick and 1.25 million die.1–3 Could it be possible that within a couple of years the crisis would fade from the public’s collective...

Best Zika Virus Detection: Saliva, Serum, or Urine?

To the Editor: Zika, an arbovirus belonging to the family Flaviviridae, is similar to the arboviruses dengue and West Nile virus.1Zika virus infection in humans can be detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction testing (RT-PCR), the M-antibody capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, or the plaque reproduction neutralization test. The virus is detected in almost all body fluids, including saliva, serum, urine, cerebrospinal...

Evaluating Sustainable Development Goal Targets: A Physician’s Perspective

For the next 15 years, the global response to poverty, rising inequality, and other challenges to sustainable development will be guided by the United Nations’ 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development,1 referred to in its preamble as a “plan of action for people, planet and prosperity.” This agenda comprises 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) focused on ending poverty and hunger, achieving gender equality, ensuring healthy lives, and...

Healthcare Industry Injuries by Patient Contact Status in Kentucky, 2012–2014

Objectives: The healthcare industry continues to have a high number of reported injuries. The purpose of this study was to characterize healthcare industry injuries by patient contact status, identify the occupations associated with healthcare injuries by patient contact status, and determine healthcare injury rates by occupation to gain a better understanding of healthcare industry-compensated injuries and better target safety practices and...

Body Mass Index and Physical Inactivity: 2013 BRFSS

Objectives: Examine the odds of adults reporting physical inactivity (PI) across six body mass index (BMI) categories. Methods: We used data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Six BMI categories were used. Results: The odds of reporting PI in underweight men and men in the class I, II, and III obesity categories were 1.65 (95% confidence interval 1.35–2.02), 1.30 (95% CI 1.21–1.39), 1.73 (95% CI 1.58–1.90),...

Relations Between Residential Proximity to EPA-Designated Toxic Release Sites and Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Incidence

Objectives: Examining the spatial patterns of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) incidence and residential proximity to toxic release locations may provide insight regarding environmental and sociodemographic risk factors. Methods: We linked and geocoded cancer incidence data for the period 1999–2008 from the Georgia Comprehensive Cancer Registry with population data from the US Census and the Environmental Protection Agency’s Toxics...

How Is Zika Transmitted?

To the Editor: The impact of the Zika virus outbreak in 2015 created international concern. Zika belongs to the virus family flaviviridae,1 and after decades of dormancy since its discovery in Uganda in 1947, it has spread rapidly in the last 2 years. It affects approximately 1.5 million people worldwide and has caused more than 4000 known birth...

PPACA and Low-Income People Living with HIV: 2014 Qualified Health Plan Enrollment in a Medicaid Nonexpansion State

: People living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) often are uninsured or underinsured, and they may benefit from the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PL 111-148) and its improved access to medical care. Safety net programs, such as AIDS Drug Assistance Programs (ADAP) funded through the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, which serve low-income people living with HIV, are incorporating...

Tobacco Use Patterns in a Southern US HIV Clinic

Objectives: Smoking rates are two to three times higher among people living with HIV and AIDS compared with the general population, but the prevalence of tobacco use among this population in the Charleston, SC region has not been established. To understand cigarette use, previous quit attempts, historic use of cessation therapies, and interest in cessation, a quality improvement project was implemented to survey smoking behaviors among this...

High Rates of STIs in HIV-Infected Patients Attending an STI Clinic

Objectives: To evaluate the rates and types of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) attending a public STI clinic in Miami, Florida as compared with HIV-uninfected patients attending the same clinic. Methods: This was a retrospective review of medical records of individuals attending the Miami-Dade County Health Department STI clinic from March 2012 to May 2012. Demographic...

Impact of Neighborhood Environments on Health Consciousness, Information Seeking, and Attitudes among US-Born and Non–US-Born Free Clinic Patients

Key Points Social cohesion is important for health education because of its positive role on health consciousness, information seeking, and … Continue reading Impact of Neighborhood Environments on Health Consciousness, Information Seeking, and Attitudes among US-Born and Non–US-Born Free Clinic Patients...

Developing and Implementing a Citywide Asthma Action Plan: A Community Collaborative Partnership

Objectives: Asthma affects 1 in 10 children in the United States, with higher prevalence among children living in poverty. Organizations in San Antonio, Texas, partnered to design and implement a uniform, citywide asthma action plan to improve asthma management capacity in schools. Methods: The asthma action plan template was modified from that of the Global Initiative for Asthma. School personnel were trained in symptom recognition, actions...