Social Support for Physical Activity for High Schoolers in Rural Southern Appalachia

Objective: Social support for physical activity (PA) has been shown to enhance PA levels in adolescents. Although social support has been examined extensively in the literature, less is known about the role of social support for PA for high school adolescents in rural southern Appalachia. PA is important because...

Patients and Guns: Florida Physicians Are Not Asking

Objectives: The number of deaths from gun violence continues to increase in the United States. Despite multiple studies demonstrating that counseling patients leads to safer gun storage, it is not routinely practiced by physicians. There are multiple barriers to discussing firearms with patients. A barrier in Florida, until recently,...

Kala Blakely, DNP, CRNP, NP-C

Dr. Reza Sadeghian is a mid-career Pediatrician/healthcare executive who has gone back for additional training in clinical informatics as a fellow at the University of...

Health Behaviors in Rural Appalachia

Objectives: To better understand the disproportionate burdens from cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, stroke, and other chronic conditions related to energy balance, we studied diet and physical activity patterns in younger and older adults in rural Appalachia by using a nonclinical, cross-sectional, community-based sampling approach.Methods: A total of 651...

OPEN: Effect of Local Smoke-Free Ordinances on Smoking Prevalence in Kentucky, 2002–2009

Objectives: Many local communities in Kentucky, a state with one of the highest smoking prevalence rates in the United States, have enacted smoke-free ordinances that prohibit smoking in workplaces and enclosed buildings open to the public. Research has shown that such ordinances are clearly beneficial for public health, but...

Know the New HIV Testing Guidelines?

To the Editor: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing identifies people infected with HIV.1 A positive assay confirms the diagnosis and provides an opportunity for lifesaving treatment. Accurate detection in an early stage of illness allows pharmacotherapy that could decrease disease severity and reduce viral...

Commentary on “Strengthening Rural States’ Capacity to Prepare for and Respond to Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2013–2015”

In response to the sentinel Institute of Medicine report on emerging infectious diseases,1 the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) published a national strategy for infectious disease prevention in 19942 and created the Emerging Infection Program (EIP) in 1995. As part of the Emerging Infection Program, the Epidemiology and...

OPEN: Strengthening Rural States’ Capacity to Prepare for and Respond to Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2013–2015

Because clinicians may be the first to encounter cases of emerging infectious diseases, they need to be able to work together with public health departments to quickly identify and respond to infectious disease outbreaks. Infectious diseases are a constant threat in many parts of the United States, including rural...

Healthcare Disparities in People with Disabilities: Is There a Cure?

The National Prevention Council, formed under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (PL 111–148), identifies a health disparity as a difference in health outcomes across subgroups of the population that often is linked to social, economic, or environmental...

FREE: The Importance of Health and Social Services Spending to Health Outcomes in Texas, 2010–2016

Objectives: Public health and social services spending have been shown to improve health outcomes at the county level, although there are significant state and regional variations in such spending. Texas offers an important opportunity for examining nuances in the patterns of association between local government health and social services...

Commentary on “Evaluation of Patients for Zika Virus Infection in a Travel Clinic in the Southeast United States, 2016”

In 2016, the World Health Organization declared the ongoing Zika virus outbreak in the Americas, the Caribbean, and the Pacific a public health emergency of international concern after identifying a causal association between Zika virus infection and microcephaly in newborns, among other central nervous system abnormalities, and adverse pregnancy...

Evaluation of Patients for Zika Virus Infection in a Travel Clinic in the Southeast United States, 2016

Objectives: Zika virus is an emerging infection that has posed vexing challenges to the US public health system. Improved characterization of patients with possible and confirmed infection is needed to better understand risks for infection in US travelers and to inform evolving evaluation guidelines. Methods: We performed a retrospective...

Ebola 101

To the Editor: Ebola virus (EBOV) is a zoonotic filovirus, with fruit bats being the animal reservoir. In recent years, there has been an Ebola epidemic in western Africa, yielding a public health crisis.1 Transmission of the virus to humans requires the direct contact of mucous membranes with the...

Potential Provider Oversupply and Underserved Areas: The Future of Alabama Medicine

Alabama must turn around its primary care provider deficit in its rural areas or risk its population’s health, finances, and well-being. Recent data show that a large portion of Alabama’s population is moving from rural areas to urban areas of the state, seeking jobs, whereas others are leaving Alabama...

Blood Pressure, HIV, and Cocaine Use Among Ethnically and Racially Diverse Individuals

Objectives: Racial minorities are at greater risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and CVD is the primary cause of mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected individuals. Cocaine use also has been associated with hypertension. This study examined the contribution of lifestyle factors to systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure (MAP)...

Homicide in the South: Higher Rates Among Whites and Fewer Racial Disparities

Objective: Describe southern US homicide rates in whites and blacks between 1999 and 2015. Methods: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Multiple Cause of Death Files provided mortality rates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for non-Hispanic whites (NHW) as well as non-Hispanic blacks and African Americans (NHB). Results:...

Effects of Religious Involvement on HIV Management Outcomes Among HIV-Positive Adults in Central North Carolina

Objectives: The goals of this pilot cross-sectional study were to determine the feasibility of and begin measuring the effect of religious institution affiliation on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) clinical outcomes in the southern United States, a region marked by later initiation of antiretroviral therapy, higher HIV-related morbidity, and higher...

World Hypertension Day

A Social-Ecological Review of Cancer Disparities in Kentucky

Cancer continuously ranks among the top 10 leading causes of death in the United States. The burden of cancer is particularly elevated in the Commonwealth of Kentucky and its 54-county Appalachian region, where cancer is the leading cause of death. Kentucky’s high rates of cancer have been attributed to...

Standardized Hypertension Management to Reduce Cardiovascular Disease Morbidity and Mortality Worldwide

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death globally. In 2013, CVDs were responsible for approximately 17 million deaths worldwide (32%), with >75% occurring in low- and middle-income countries...