1. Go AS, Mozaffarian D, Roger VL, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics--2014 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation 2014;129:e28-e292.
2. Gallagher D, Visser M, Sepulveda D, et al. How useful is body mass index for comparison of body fatness across age, sex, and ethnic groups? Am J Epidemiol 1996;143:228-239.
3. Heymsfield SB, Allison DB, Heshka S, et al. Assessment of human body composition. In: Allison DB, ed. Handbook of Assessment Methods for Eating Behaviors and Weight-Related Problems: Measures, Theory, and Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications; 1995:515-560.
4. Clinical guidelines on the identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults: executive summary. Expert Panel on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight in Adults. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;68:899-917.
5. Rexrode KM, Carey VJ, Hennekens CH, et al. Abdominal adiposity and coronary heart disease in women. JAMA 1998;280:1843-1848.
6. Hartz AJ, Rupley DC Jr, Kalkhoff RD, et al. Relationship of obesity to diabetes: influence of obesity level and body fat distribution. Prev Med 1983;12:351-357.
7. Chan JM, Rimm EB, Colditz GA, et al. Obesity, fat distribution, and weight gain as risk factors for clinical diabetes in men. Diabetes Care 1994;17:961-969.
8. Pouliot MC, Despres JP, Nadeau A, et al. Visceral obesity in men. Associations with glucose tolerance, plasma insulin, and lipoprotein levels. Diabetes 1992;41:826-834.
9. Despres JP, Moorjani S, Ferland M, et al. Adipose tissue distribution and plasma lipoprotein levels in obese women. Importance of intra-abdominal fat. Arteriosclerosis 1989;9:203-210.
10. Tchernof A, Lamarche B, Prud’Homme D, et al. The dense LDL phenotype. Association with plasma lipoprotein levels, visceral obesity, and hyperinsulinemia in men. Diabetes Care 1996;19:629-637.
11. Grundy SM, Brewer HB Jr, Cleeman JI, et al. Definition of metabolic syndrome: report of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute/ American Heart Association conference on scientific issues related to definition. Circulation 2004;109:433-438.
12. Pouliot MC, Despres JP, Lemieux S, et al. Waist circumference and abdominal sagittal diameter: best simple anthropometric indexes of abdominal visceral adipose tissue accumulation and related cardiovascular risk in men and women. Am J Cardiol 1994;73:460-468.
13. Emery EM, Schmid TL, Kahn HS, et al. A review of the association between abdominal fat distribution, health outcome measures, and modifiable risk factors. Am J Health Promot 1993;7:342-353.
14. Virani SS, Pompeii L, Lincoln AE, et al. Association between traditional cholesterol parameters, lipoprotein particle concentration, novel biomarkers and carotid plaques in retired National Football League players. Atherosclerosis 2012;222:551-556.
15. Miller MA, Croft LB, Belanger AR, et al. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in retired National Football League players. Am J Cardiol 2008;101:1281-1284.
16. Pletcher MJ, Tice JA, Pignone M, et al. Using the coronary artery calcium score to predict coronary heart disease events: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med 2004;164:1285-1292.
17. Detrano R, Guerci AD, Carr JJ, et al. Coronary calcium as a predictor of coronary events in four racial or ethnic groups. N Engl J Med 2008;358:1336-1345.
18. Greenland P, Bonow RO, Brundage BH, et al. ACCF/AHA 2007 clinical expert consensus document on coronary artery calcium scoring by computed tomography in global cardiovascular risk assessment and in evaluation of patients with chest pain: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Clinical Expert Consensus Task Force (ACCF/AHA Writing Committee to Update the 2000 Expert Consensus Document on Electron Beam Computed Tomography). Circulation 2007;115:402-426.
19. Chang AY, FitzGerald SJ, Cannaday J, et al. Cardiovascular risk factors and coronary atherosclerosis in retired National Football League players. Am J Cardiol 2009;104:805-811.
20. Hurst RT, Burke RF, Wissner E, et al. Incidence of subclinical atherosclerosis as a marker of cardiovascular risk in retired professional football players. Am J Cardiol 2010;105:1107-1111.
21. Croft LB, Belanger A, Miller MA, et al. Comparison of National Football League linemen versus nonlinemen of left ventricular mass and left atrial size. Am J Cardiol 2008;102:343-347.
22. Albuquerque FN, Kuniyoshi FH, Calvin AD, et al. Sleep-disordered breathing, hypertension, and obesity in retired National Football League players. J Am Coll Cardiol 2010;56:1432-1433.
23. Friedewald WT, Levy RI, Fredrickson DS. Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem 1972;18:499-502.
24. Tota-Maharaj R, Blaha MJ, McEvoy JW, et al. Coronary artery calcium for the prediction of mortality in young adults 75 years old. Eur Heart J 2012;33:2955-2962.
25. Sarwar A, Shaw LJ, Shapiro MD, et al. Diagnostic and prognostic value of absence of coronary artery calcification. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2009;2:675-688.
26. Blaha M, Budoff MJ, Shaw LJ, et al. Absence of coronary artery calcification and all-cause mortality. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2009;2:692-700.
27. Agatston AS, Janowitz WR, Hildner FJ, et al. Quantification of coronary artery calcium using ultrafast computed tomography. J Am Coll Cardiol 1990;15:827-832.
28. Gast KB, Smit JW, den Heijer M, et al. Abdominal adiposity largely explains associations between insulin resistance, hyperglycemia and subclinical atherosclerosis: the NEO study. Atherosclerosis 2013;229:423-429.
29. Recio-Rodriguez JI, Gomez-Marcos MA, Patino-Alonso MC, et al. Abdominal obesity vs general obesity for identifying arterial stiffness, subclinical atherosclerosis and wave reflection in healthy, diabetics and hypertensive. BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2012;12:3.
30. Yan RT, Yan AT, Anderson TJ, et al. The differential association between various anthropometric indices of obesity and subclinical atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis 2009;207:232-238.
31. Lemieux S, Prud’Homme D, Bouchard C, Tremblay A, Despres JP. A single threshold value of waist girth identifies normal-weight and overweight subjects with excess visceral adipose tissue. Am J Clin Nutr 1996;64:685-693.
32. LeBlanc A, Rowe R, Evans H, et al. Muscle atrophy during long duration bed rest. Int J Sports Med 1997;18(Suppl 4):S283-S285.