1. Tawfik DS, Profit J, Morgenthaler TI, et al. Physician burnout, well-being, and work unit safety grades in relationship to reported medical errors. Mayo Clin Proc 2018;93:1571–1580.
2. Menon NK, Shanafelt TD, Sinsky CA, et al. Association of physician burnout with suicidal ideation and medical errors. JAMA Netw Open 2020; 3:e2028780.
3. Shanafelt TD, Boone S, Tan L, et al. Burnout and satisfaction with work-life balance among US physicians relative to the general US population. Arch Intern Med 2012;172:1377.
4. West CP, Dyrbye LN, Erwin PJ, et al. Interventions to prevent and reduce physician burnout: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet 2016; 388:2272–2281.
5. Bakker AB, Schaufeli WB, Demerouti E, et al. Using equity theory to examine the difference between burnout and depression. Anxiety Stress Coping 2000;13:247–268.
6. Seo C, Corrado M, Fournier K, et al. Addressing the physician burnout epidemic with resilience curricula in medical education: a systematic review. BMC Med Educ 2021;21:80.
7. West CP, Dyrbye LN, Sinsky C, et al. Resilience and burnout among physicians and the general US working population. JAMA Netw Open 2020;3:e209385.
8. Shanafelt TD, Dyrbye LN, West CP. Addressing physician burnout: the way forward. JAMA 2017;317:901–902.
9. Shanafelt TD, Dyrbye LN, Sinsky C, et al. Relationship between clerical burden and characteristics of the electronic environment with physician burnout and professional satisfaction. Mayo Clin Proc 2016;91:836–848.
10. Shanafelt TD, West CP, Sinsky C, et al. Changes in burnout and satisfaction with work-life integration in physicians and the general US working population between 2011 and 2017. Mayo Clin Proc 2019;94:1681–1694.
11. Del Carmen MG, Herman J, Rao S, et al. Trends and factors associated with physician burnout at a multispecialty academic faculty practice organization. JAMA Netw Open 2019;2:e190554.
12. Windover AK, Martinez K, Mercer MB, et al. Correlates and outcomes of physician burnout within a large academic medical center. JAMA Intern Med 2018;178:856.
13. Maslach C, Jackson S, Leiter M. Maslach Burnout Inventory Manual, 3rd ed. Mountain View, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press; 1996.
14. Shanafelt TD, Gradishar WJ, Kosty M, et al. Burnout and career satisfaction among US oncologists. J Clin Oncol 2014;32:678–686.
15. Marshall AL, Dyrbye LN, Shanafelt TD, et al. Disparities in burnout and satisfaction with work-life integration in U.S. physicians by gender and practice setting. Acad Med 2020;95:1435–1443.
16. Garcia LC, Shanafelt TD, West CP, et al. Burnout, depression, career satisfaction, and work-life integration by physician race/ethnicity. JAMA Netw Open 2020;3:e2012762.
18. Gardner RL, Cooper E, Haskell J, et al. Physician stress and burnout: the impact of health information technology. J Am Med Informatics Assoc 2019;26:106–114.
19. McMurray JE, Linzer M, Konrad TR, et al. The work lives of women physicians. Results from the Physician Work Life Study. J Gen Intern Med 2000;15:372–380.
20. Linzer M, Harwood E. Gendered expectations: do they contribute to high burnout among female physicians? J Gen Intern Med 2018;33:963–965.
21. Jolly S, Griffith KA, DeCastro R, et al. Gender differences in time spent on parenting and domestic responsibilities by high-achieving young physician-researchers. Ann Intern Med 2014;160:344–353.
22. Deryugina T, Shurchkov O, Stearns J. COVID-19 disruptions disproportionately affect female academics. https://www.nber.org/papers/w28360
. Published January 2021. Accessed June 6, 2022.
23. Squazzoni F, Bravo G, Grimaldo F, et al. Only second-class tickets for women in the COVID-19 race. A study on manuscript submissions and reviews in 2347 Elsevier journals during the pandemic. PLoS One 2021;16:e0257919.
24. Harry E, Sinsky C, Dyrbye LN, et al. Physician task load and the risk of burnout among US physicians in a national survey. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf 2021;47:76–85.
25. West CP, Dyrbye LN, Shanafelt TD. Physician burnout: contributors, consequences and solutions. J Intern Med 2018;283:516–529.
26. Sheppard KG, Duncan CG. Relative value units in health care: friend, foe, or necessary evil? J Am Assoc Nurse Pract 2020;32:626–629.
28. Yan C, Rose S, Rothberg MB, et al. Physician, scribe, and patient perspectives on clinical scribes in primary care. J Gen Intern Med 2016;31:990–995.
29. Funk KA, Pestka DL, Roth MT, et al. Primary care providers believe that comprehensive medication management improves their work-life. J Am Board Fam Med 2019;32:462–473.
30. Murphy DR, Satterly T, Giardina TD, et al. Practicing clinicians’ recommendations to reduce burden from the electronic health record inbox: a mixed-methods study. J Gen Intern Med 2019;34:1825–1832.