Changes in Proportions of Emergency Department Patients with Mental Illness Noted in the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, 2012–2015
AbstractObjectives: The primary objective of this study was to determine whether there was a change in the rate and types of patients with psychiatric illnesses being seen in the emergency department (ED) from 2012 to 2015 using the National Ambulatory Care Survey. A secondary objective was to determine what if any changes occurred in the resources available to care for these patients.
Methods: Our study used 2012–2015 data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and the State Mental Health Agency Per Capita Mental Health Services Expenditures, and expenditures data from 2012–2015 to examine whether there was a significant change in the rate and type of mental illness ED visits. Additional data on the number of beds per region from the National Mental Health Services Survey, 2012–2015 were used. A t test was used to look for significant (P = 0.05) changes in the rate and types of patients, ED dispositions, ED reimbursement types, region and community level income, sex, age, state mental health funding, and psychiatric beds from 2012 to 2015.
Results: There was an 8% increase in the rate of patients who presented with a diagnosed mental health disorder (P = 0.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] 5.32–5.96) and substance use disorders (P = 0.03, 95% CI 0.564–0.122). The reimbursement for these visits did change (P = 0.01, 95% CI 0.245–0.685); however, there was no significant increase (P = 0.07, 95% CI−214 to 101) in state mental health budgets and the number of psychiatric and detox hospital beds from 2012 to 2015.
Conclusions: The rate and types of mental health patients coming to the ED are still on the rise. This is coupled with a lack of mental health infrastructure to address the needs and diagnoses that continue to be seen in the ED. States may need increased, targeted funding for mental health outside the increase in coverage via the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act to slow the rate of mental health patients seen in the ED.
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