Clinical Management of ADHD in a Family Medicine Residency Program: Comparison with AAP Guidelines
AbstractObjectives: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurobehavioral disorder. Research has shown that even with the growing incidence of children diagnosed as having ADHD, physicians may find providing optimal care to these patients challenging. Our objective was to contrast existing clinical management of ADHD in a family medicine setting with published American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines and review the literature pertinent to differences.
Methods: A report was generated for all visits with “ADHD” or “ADD” (attention-deficit disorder) as a current or past medical problem that had been addressed at the family medicine clinic from July 2012 to June 2014. A total of 60 pediatric patients were identified. A retrospective chart review of clinical practice and management patterns for these patients was completed using a standardized data collection form based on the 2011 ADHD treatment guidelines set by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Results: Fifty-seven (95%) patients had documentation of at least one core symptom of ADHD, and 27 (45%) patients had documentation of these symptoms in more than one setting (clinic/school/home). Only 30 (50%) patients were assessed at the initial ADHD visit for coexisting conditions. Coexisting conditions were found to be present in 20 (33.3%) patients. Of these 20 patients, coexisting conditions were not addressed during the visit in 12 (60%) patients before drug therapy for ADHD was initially prescribed. Behavioral therapy was initiated as first-line monotherapy in one of the nine preschool-age patients (4–5 years old). Fifty-two (86.7%) patients received a preferred initial medication as identified by guidelines, and 41 (78.8%) of those patients received an appropriate initial dose. Fifty-one (85%) patients were assessed for improvement of symptoms, and 39 (65%) were assessed for adverse events. Of 62 documented medication adjustments, 54 (87.1%) adjustments coincided with current practice guidelines. Sixteen (26.7%) patients were referred to mental health specialists.
Conclusions: This retrospective review identified areas of strength and weakness for attending physicians and medical residents in the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of children with ADHD. A significant need was identified for more physician-focused education on the evaluation of coexisting conditions and long-term management associated with ADHD therapy. Further training in the initiation of behavioral therapy as a first-line treatment above drug therapy and proper medication selection in children aged 4 to 5 years also are recommended.
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