6. Nazroo JY, Williams DR, Marmot M, et al. The social determination of ethnic/ racial inequalities in health. In: Marmot M, Wilkinson RG, eds., Social Determinants of Health, 2nd ed., New York: Oxford University Press; 2005.
7. Salas R. Environmental racism and climate change—missed diagnoses. N Engl J Med 2021;385:967–969.
8. Hankerson SH, Moise N, Wilson D, et al. The intergenerational impact of structural racism and cumulative trauma on depression. Am J Psychiatry 2022;179:434–440.
9. National Center for Health Statistics. Health, United States, 2019. Table 004. Life expectancy at birth, age 65, and age 75, by sex, race, and Hispanic origin: United States, selected years 1900–2018. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/hus/data-finder.htm
. Accessed July 24, 2023.
10. Akhter M. Assessment of linked associations in predictors of life expectancy inequality. JAMA Intern Med 2018;178:563–564.
11. Paradies Y, Ben J, Denson N, et al. Racism as a determinant of health: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS ONE 2015;10:e0138511.
12. Lopez L III, Hart LH, Katz MH. Racial and ethnic health disparities related to COVID-19. JAMA 2021;325:719–720.
13. Sim W, Lim WH, Ng CH, et al. The perspectives of health professionals and patients on racism in healthcare: a qualitative systematic review. PLoS ONE 2021;16:e0255936.
14. Satcher D, Dawes DE. Race and the patient-physician relationship in 2021. JAMA 2021;326:595–596.
15. Takeshita J, Wang S, Loren AW, et al. Association of racial/ethnic and gender concordance between patients and physicians with patient experience ratings. JAMA Netw Open 2020;3:e2024583.
16. Salsberg E, Richwine C, Westergaard S, et al. Estimation and comparison of current and future racial/ethnic representation in the US health care workforce. JAMA Netw Open 2021;4:e213789.
17. O’Marr JM, Chan SM, Crawford L, et al. Perceptions on burnout and the medical school learning environment of medical students who are underrepresented in medicine. JAMA Netw Open 2022;5:e220115.
18. Schwartz A, Alsan M, Morris A, et al. Why diverse clinical trial participation matters. N Engl J Med 2023;388:1252–1254.
19. Ogedegbe G. Responsibility of medical journals in addressing racism in health care. JAMA Netw Open 2020;3:e2016531.