Case Report

A Case of Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis Leading to Pneumonia with Unusual Organisms

Authors: Brown James McCallum, MD, David Amrol, MD, Joseph Horvath, MD, Nadeem Inayat, MD, Rohit Talwani, MD

Abstract

We describe the case of a 50-year-old male with a history of asthma and seizure disorder who presented with a 5-month history of dyspnea. The patient had been treated with multiple courses of antibiotics for presumed community-acquired pneumonia before being determined to have allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) by serologic and radiographic criteria. Inflammation resulting from this disease had potentiated a postobstructive pneumonia caused by Nocardia asteroides and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Therapy with corticosteroids, trimethoprim sulfa, and voriconazole failed to prevent subsequent destruction of the right upper lobe and the patient required surgical intervention. The discussion emphasizes the diagnostic criteria for ABPA including historic, serologic, and radiographic findings; staging, and treatment. Other possible diagnoses, such as invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, chronic necrotizing aspergillosis, and hyper-IgE syndrome are also briefly reviewed.


Key Points


* Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis requires a high degree of clinical suspicion for diagnosis.


* Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is characterized by the constellation of asthma, elevated total serum IgE, immediate cutaneous hypersensitivity to Aspergillus fumigatus,elevated IgG or IgE to Aspergillus fumigatus, and central bronchiectasis.


* Misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis of ABPA can lead to significant morbidity or mortality.

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