2. Ronsmans C, Graham WJ. Lancet Maternal Survival Series steering group. Maternal mortality: who, when, where, and why. Lancet. 2006; 368: 1189–2000.
3. Sachs BP, Brown DA, Driscoll SG, et al. Maternal mortality in Massachusetts. Trends and prevention. N Engl J Med. 1987; 316: 667–672.
4. Hogan MC, Foreman KJ, Naghavi M, et al. Maternal mortality for 181 countries, 1980–2008: a systematic analysis of progress towards Millennium Development Goal 5. Lancet. 2010; 375: 1609–1623.
5. Gaskin IM. Maternal death in the United States: a problem solved or a problem ignored? J Perinat Educ. 2008; 17: 9–13.
6. Hill K, Thomas K, AbouZahr C, et al. Estimates of maternal mortality worldwide between 1990 and 2005: an assessment of available data. Lancet. 2007; 370: 1311–1319.
7a. Gissler M, Deneux-Tharaux C, Alexander S, et al. Pregnancy-related deaths in four regions of Europe and the United States in 1999–2000: characterisation of unreported deaths. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2007; 133: 179–185.
8. Atrash HK, Rowley D, Hogue CJ. Maternal and perinatal mortality. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 1992; : 4: 61–71.
10. Go AS, Mozaffarian D, Roger VL, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics—2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2013; 127: e6–e245.
11. Otto H, Saether SG, Banteyrga L, et al. High prevalence of subclinical rheumatic heart disease in pregnant women in a developing country: an echocardiographic study. Echocardiography. 2011; 28: 1049–1053.
12. Gentry MB, Dias JK, Luis A, et al. African-American women have a higher risk for developing peripartum cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010; 55: 654–659.
13. Kuklina EV, Ayala C, Callaghan WM. Hypertensive disorders and severe obstetric morbidity in the United States. Obstet Gynecol. 2009; 113: 1299–1306.
14. Berg CJ, Callaghan WM, Syverson C, et al. Pregnancy-related mortality in the United States, 1998 to 2005. Obstet Gynecol. 2010; 116: 1302–1309.
15. Marelli AJ, Mackie AS, Ionescu-Ittu R, et al. Congenital heart disease in the general population: changing prevalence and age distribution. Circulation. 2007; 115: 163–172.
16. Drenthen W, Boersma E, Balci A, et al. Predictors of pregnancy complications in women with congenital heart disease. Eur Heart J. 2010; 31: 2124–2132.
17. Stangl V, Schad J, Gossing G, et al. Maternal heart disease and pregnancy outcome: a single centre experience. Eur J Heart Fail. 2008; 10: 855–860.
18. Drenthen W, Pieper PG, Roos-Hesselink JW, et al. Outcome of pregnancy in women with congenital heart disease: a literature review. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007; 49: 2303–2311.
19. Lui GK, Silversides CK, Khairy P, et al. Heart rate response during exercise and pregnancy outcome in women with congenital heart disease. Circulation. 2011; 123: 242–248.
20. Sui SC, Sermer M, Colman JM, et al. Prospective multicenter study of pregnancy outcomes in women with heart disease. Circulation. 2001; 104: 515–521.
21. Khairy P, Ouyang DW, Fernandes SM, et al. Pregnancy outcomes in women with congenital heart disease. Circulation. 2006; 113: 517–524.
22. Ladner HE, Danielsen B, Gilbert WM . Acute myocardial infarction in pregnancy and the puerperium: a population-based study. Obstet Gynecol. 2005; 105: 480–484.
23. Regitz-Zagrosek V, Blomstrom-Lundqvist CB, Borghi C, et al. ESC guidelines on the management of cardiovascular diseases during pregnancy: the Task Force on the Management of Cardiovascular Diseases during Pregnancy of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur Heart J. 2011; 32: 3147–3197.
24. Easterling TR, Benedetti TJ, Schmucker BC, et al. Maternal hemodynamics in normal and preeclamptic pregnancies: a longitudinal study. Obstet Gynecol. 1990; 76: 1061–1069.
25. McAnulty JH. Heart disease and pregnancy. In: Fuster V, Walsh RA, Harrington RA. , eds. Hurst’s The Heart. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2011; : 2147–2148.
26. Campos O. Doppler echocardiography during pregnancy: physiologic and abnormal findings. Echocardiography. 1996; 13: 135–146.
27. Edouard DA, Pannier BM, London GM, et al. Venous and arterial behavior during normal pregnancy. Am J Physiol. 1998; : 274: h1605–h1612.
28. Kafka H, Johnson MR, Gatzoulis MA. The team approach to pregnancy and congenital heart disease. Cardiol Clin. 2006; 24: 587–605.
29. Sullivan JM, Ramanathan KB. Management of medical problems in pregnancy—severe cardiac disease. N Engl J Med. 1985; 313: 304–309.
30. Abbas AE, Lester SJ, Connolly H. Pregnancy and the cardiovascular system. Int J Cardiol. 2005; 98: 179–189.
31. Donnelly RT, Pinto NM, Kocolas I, et al. The immediate and long-term impact of pregnancy on aortic growth rate and mortality in women with Marfan syndrome. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012; 60: 224–229.
32. Uebing A, Steer PJ, Yentis SM, et al. Pregnancy and congenital heart disease. BMJ. 2006; : 332: 401–406.
33. Thorne S, MacGregor A, Nelson-Piercy C. Risk of contraception and pregnancy in heart disease. Heart. 2006; 92: 1520–1525.
34. Yap SC, Drenthen W, Pieper PG, et al. Risk of complications during pregnancy in women with congenital aortic stenosis. Int J Cardiol. 2008; 126: 240–246.
35. James AH, Jamison MG, Biswas MS, et al. Acute myocardial infarction in pregnancy: a United States population-based study. Circulation. 2006; 113: 1564–1571.
36. Roth A, Elkayam U. Acute myocardial infarction associated with pregnancy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008; 52: 171–180.
37. Leonhardt G, Gaul C, Nietsh HH, et al. Thrombolytic therapy in pregnancy. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2006; 21: 271–276.
38. O’Gara PT, Kushner FG, Ascheim DD, et al. 2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for management of ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/ American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guideline. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013; 61: e78–e140.
39. Mielniczuk LM, Williams K, Davis DR, et al. Frequency of peripartum cardiomyopathy. Am J Cardiol. 2006; 97: 1765–1768.
40. Elkayam U, Tummala PP, Rao K, et al. Maternal and fetal outcomes of subsequent pregnancies in women with peripartum cardiomyopathy. N Engl J Med. 2001; 344: 1567–1571.
41. Habli M, O’Brien T, Nowack E, et al. Peripartum cardiomyopathy: prognostic factors for long-term maternal outcome. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008; 199: 415e1–415-e5
42. Elkayam U, Jalnapurkar S, Barakat M. Peripartum cardiomyopathy. Cardiol Clin. 2012; 30: 435–440.
43. Goland S, Modi K, Bitar F, et al. Clinical profile and predictors of complications in peripartum cardiomyopathy. J Card Fail. 2009; 15: 645–650.
44. Whitehead SJ, Berg CJ, Chang J. Pregnancy-related mortality due to cardiomyopathy: United States, 1991–1997. Obstet Gynecol. 2003; 102: 1326–1331.
45. Autore C, Conte MR, Piccininno M, et al. Risk associated with pregnancy in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002; 40: 1864–1869.
46. Avila WS, Amaral FM, Ramires JA, et al. Influence of pregnancy on clinical course and fetal outcome of women with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2007; 88: 423–428.
47. Mahli A, Izdes S, Coskun D. Cardiac operations during pregnancy: review of factors influencing fetal outcome. Ann Thorac Surg. 2000; 69: 1622–1626.
48. Frishman WH, Elkayam U, Aronow WS. Cardiovascular drugs in pregnancy. Cardiol Clin. 2012; 30: 463–491.
49. Pieper PG. Pre-pregnancy risk assessment and counselling of the cardiac patient. Neth Heart J. 2011; 19: 477–481.