1. Arnold RM, Kellum J. Moral justifications for surrogate decision making in the intensive care unit: implications and limitations. Crit Care Med 2003;31(5 suppl):S347-S353.
2. Pellegrino ED. What the philosophy of medicine is. Theor Med Bioeth 1998;19:315-336.
3. Tunney RJ, Ziegler FV. Toward a psychology of surrogate decision making. Perspect Psychol Sci 2015;10:880-885.
4. Fleming DA, Sheppard VB, Mangan PA, et al. Caregiving at the end of life: perceptions of health care quality and quality of life among patients and caregivers. J Pain Symptom Manage 2006;31:407-420.
5. Fagerlin A, Ditto PH, Danks JH, et al. Projection in surrogate decisions about life-sustaining medical treatments. Health Psychol 2001;20:166-175.
6. Vig EK, Sudore RL, Berg KM, et al. Responding to surrogate requests that seem inconsistent with a patient’ living will. J Pain Symptom Manage 2011;32:777-782.
7. Danis M, Garrett J, Harris R, et al. Stability of choices about life-sustaining treatments. Ann Intern Med 1994;120:567-573.
8. Emanuel LL, Emanuel EJ, Stoeckle JD, et al. Advance directives. Stability of patients’
treatment choices. Arch Intern Med 1994;154:209-217.
9. Terry PB, Vettese M, Song J, et al. End-of-life decision making: when patients and surrogates disagree. J Clin Ethics 1999;10:286-293.
10. Puchalski CM, Zhong Z, Jacobs MM, et al. Patients who want their family and physician to make resuscitation decisions for them: observations from SUPPORT and HELP. Study to Understand Prognoses and Preferences for Outcomes and Risks of Treatment. Hospitalized Elderly Longitudinal Project. J Am Geriatr Soc 2000;48( 5 suppl ):S84-S90.
11. Sehgal A, Galbraith A, Chesney M, et al. How strictly do dialysis patients want their advance directives followed? JAMA 1992;267:59-63.
12. Tunzi M. Advance care directives: realities and challenges in central California. J Clin Ethics 2011;22:239-248.
13. Sudore RL, Landefeld CS, Barnes DE, et al. An advance directive redesigned to meet the literacy level of most adults: a randomized trial. Patient Educ Couns 2007;69:165-195.
14. Ugalde A, O'Callaghan C, Byard C, et al. Does implementation matter if comprehension is lacking? A qualitative investigation into perceptions of advance care planning in people with cancer. Support Care Cancer 2018;26:3765-3771.
15. Sulmasy DP, Snyder L. Substituted interests and best judgments: an integrated model of surrogate decision making. JAMA 2010;304:1946-1947.
16. Phillips J, Wendler D. Clarifying substituted judgement: the endorsed life approach. J Med Ethics 2015;41:723-730.
17. Sulmasy DP, Sulmasy LS. On substituted arguments. J Med Ethics 2015;41:732-733.
18. Brudney D. Patients, doctors and the good life (for the patient). J Med Ethics 2015;41:733-735.
19. Chan HM. Whose decision? Whose practice? J Med Ethics 2015;41:735-736.
20. Dresser R. Substituted judgment in real life. J Med Ethics 2015;41:731-738.
21. Lynn J. Conflicts of interest in medical decision-making. J Am Geriatric Soc 1988;36:945-950.
22. Rhodes R, Holzman IR. The not unreasonable standard for assessment of surrogates and surrogate decisions. Theor Med Bioeth 2004;25:367-385.
23. Varma S, Wendler D. Medical decision making for patients without surrogates. Arch Intern Med 2007;167:1711-1715.
24. d'Aloja E, Pintor M, Paribello F, et al. Neither freedom nor autonomy without beneficence. Arch Intern Med 2008;168:548-549.
25. Fine RL. Keeping the patient at the center of patient- and family-centered care. J Pain Symptom Manage 2010;40:621-625.