Review Article

OPEN: Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor-Related Pulmonary Toxicity: A Comprehensive Review, Part II

Authors: Hazim Bukamur, MD, Akram Alkrekshi, MD, PgDip, Heather Katz, DO, Mohamed Alsharedi, MD, Yousef R. Shweihat, MD, Nancy J. Munn, MD


The development of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has changed the treatment paradigm for cancer. The ICIs nivolumab, pembrolizumab, and cemiplimab target programmed cell death protein 1, and durvalumab, avelumab, and atezolizumab target programmed death ligand 1. Ipilimumab targets cytotoxic T lymphocyte–associated antigen-4. Used as monotherapy or in combination, they have shown remarkable efficacy in melanoma, lung cancer, and many other solid tumors, and indications continue to evolve. These checkpoint inhibitors are typically well tolerated; however, they may cause immune-mediated adverse effects, resulting in inflammation of any organ system. Pulmonary toxicity is vital to recognize, and it can be more challenging to diagnose in patients with lung cancer, given the nature of the disease course and treatment.

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