Primary Article

Immunohistochemistry: A Useful Adjunct in the Evaluation of Malignant Cutaneous Spindle Cell Tumors



ABSTRACT: We used immunohistochemistry to evaluate four cytologically malignant cutaneous neoplasms on the face or neck of elderly individuals. All four lesions were composed of a dermal proliferation of spindle and pleomorphic giant cells. Differential diagnosis included spindle cell carcinoma, atypical fibroxanthoma, malignant melanoma, leiomyosarcoma, and angiosarcoma. All four neoplasms were strongly immunoreactive for vimentin and negative for cytokeratin, S100 protein, desmin, and factor-VIII-related antigen. Focal immunoreactivity for lysozyme and/or a1-antichymotrypsin was seen in the giant cells of each lesion. These results supported the diagnosis of atypical fibroxanthoma in each instance. Immunohistochemical staining can provide useful information for distinguishing among malignant cutaneous spindle cell tumors.

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