1. Trussell J, Vaughan B. Contraceptive failure, method-related discontinuation and resumption of use: results from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth. Fam Plann Perspect. 1999; 31: 64–72.
2. Chiou CF, Trussell J, Reyes E, et al. Economic analysis of contraceptives for women. Contraception. 2003; 68: 3–10.
4. Grimes DA. Intrauterine device and upper-genital-tract infection. Lancet. 2000; 356: 1013–1019.
5. Hubacher D, Lara-Richalde R, Taylor DJ, et al. Use of copper intrauterine devices and risk of tubal infertility among nulligravid women. N Engl J Med. 2001; 345: 561–567.
6. Stanwood NL, Garrett JM, Konrad TR. Obstetrician-gynecologists and the intrauterine device: a survey of attitudes and practice. Obstet Gynecol. 2002; 99: 275–280.
7. Espey E, Ogburn T, Espey D, et al. IUD-related knowledge, attitudes and practices among Navajo Area Indian Health Service providers. Perspect Sex Reprod Health. 2003; 35: 169–173.
8. Harper CC, Blum M, de Bocanegra HT, et al. Challenges in translating evidence to practice: the provision of intrauterine contraception. Obstet Gynecol. 2008; 111: 1359–1369.
9. Madden T, Allsworth JE, Hladky KJ, et al. Intrauterine contraception in Saint Louis: a survey of obstetrician and gynecologists’ knowledge and attitudes. Contraception. 2010; 81: 112–116.
10. Dehlendorf C, Levy K, Ruskin R, et al. Health care providers’ knowledge about contraceptive evidence: a barrier to quality family planning care? Contraception. 2010; 81: 292–298.
11. Stanwood NL, Bradley KA. Young pregnant women’s knowledge of modern intrauterine devices. Obstet Gynecol. 2006; 108: 1417–1422.
12. Hladky KJ, Allsworth JE, Madden T, et al. Women’s knowledge about intrauterine contraception. Obstet Gynecol. 2011; 177: 48–54.
13. Tyler CP, Whiteman MK, Zapata LB, et al. Health care provider attitudes and practices related to intrauterine devices for nulliparous women. Obstet Gynecol. 2012; 119: 762–771.
14. d’Arcangues C. Worldwide use of intrauterine devices for contraception. Contraception. 2007; 75: S2–S7.
15. Mosher WD, Jones J. Use of contraception in the United States: 1982-2008. Vital Health Stat. 2010; 29: 1–44.
16. Westhoff C, Marks F, Rosenfield A. Residency training in contraception, sterilization, and abortion. Obstet Gynecol. 1993; 81: 311–314.
17. Postlethwaite D, Shaber R, Mancuso V, et al. Intrauterine contraception: evaluation of clinician practice patterns in Kaiser Permanente Northern California. Contraception. 2007; 75: 177–184.
18. Peipert JF, Zhao Q, Allsworth JE, et al. Continuation and satisfaction of reversible contraception. Obstet Gynecol. 2011; 117: 1105–1113.
19. Department of Reproductive Health, World Health Organization. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use. 4th ed. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2009.
20. Council on Resident Education in Obstetrics and Gynecology. Educational Objectives: Core Curriculum in Obstetrics and Gynecology. 9th ed. New York: Professional Publishing Group; 2009.
21. Miklavcic AY, Isaacs CR. Obstetric-gynecology resident education regarding barrier and over-the-counter contraceptives: a national study. J Womens Health (Larchmount). 2012; 21: 1196–1200.
22. Burkett D, Horwitz J, Kennedy V, et al. Assessing current trends in resident hysterectomy training. Female Pelvic Med Reconstr Surg. 2011; 17: 210–214.
23. Lee W, Hodges AN, Williams S, et al. Fetal ultrasound training for obstetrics and gynecology residents. Obstet Gynecol. 2004; 103: 333–338.
24. Steiner AZ, Fritz M, Sites CK, et al. Resident experience on reproductive endocrinology and infertility rotations and perceived knowledge. Obstet Gynecol. 2011; 117: 324–330.
25. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. US Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 2010. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2010; 59: 1–86.
26. Committee Opinion No. 505: understanding and using the U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 2010. Obstet Gynecol. 2011; 118: 754–760.
27. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Committee on Gynecologic Practice, Long-Acting Reversible Contraception Working Group. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 450: increasing use of contraceptive implants and intrauterine devices to reduce unintended pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2009; 114: 1434–1438.
28. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 110: noncontraceptive uses of hormonal contraceptives. Obstet Gynecol. 2010; 115: 206–218.
29. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 121: long-acting reversible contraception: implants and intrauterine devices. Obstet Gynecol. 2011; 118: 184–196.
30. Gemzell-Danielsson K, Schellschmidt I, Apter D. A randomized, phase II study describing the efficacy, bleeding profile, and safety of two low-dose levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine contraceptive systems and Mirena. Fertil Steril. 2012; 97: 616622.e1–3