Original Article

Opioid Use Among HIV-Positive Pregnant Women and the Risk for Maternal–Fetal Complications

Authors: Ngoc H. Nguyen, PharmD, Erika N. Le, PharmD, Vanessa O. Mbah, PharmD, Emily B. Welsh, PharmD, Rana Daas, BS, Kiara K. Spooner, DrPH, MPH, Jason L. Salemi, PhD, MPH, Omonike A. Olaleye, PhD, MPH, Hamisu M. Salihu, MD, PhD

Abstract

Objective: To assess patient- and hospital-level characteristics associated with opioid use in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–positive pregnant women and fetal health outcomes.

Methods: Using the 2002–2014 Nationwide Inpatient Sample database, we analyzed discharge records to describe the rates of opioid use among HIV-positive pregnant women. Logistic regression was used to quantify the magnitude of the association between exposure status and maternal–fetal outcomes.

Results: Opioid use was fourfold greater among HIV-positive pregnant women compared with their HIV-negative counterparts (odds ratio 4.0; 95% confidence interval 3.15–5.12). Relatively smaller but significant increases in the early onset of delivery, poor fetal growth, abortive pregnancy, and spontaneous abortion also were observed in association with HIV-positive status and opioid drug use during pregnancy.

Conclusions: An increased risk of negative maternal–fetal complications persists among HIV-positive women who use opioids during pregnancy. Focusing on predisposing factors and monitoring opioid dispensing may mitigate overuse or abuse in this vulnerable population.
Posted in: Infectious Disease16 Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) And Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection5 Pregnancy8

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