Opioid Use Among HIV-Positive Pregnant Women and the Risk for Maternal–Fetal Complications
AbstractObjective: To assess patient- and hospital-level characteristics associated with opioid use in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–positive pregnant women and fetal health outcomes.
Methods: Using the 2002–2014 Nationwide Inpatient Sample database, we analyzed discharge records to describe the rates of opioid use among HIV-positive pregnant women. Logistic regression was used to quantify the magnitude of the association between exposure status and maternal–fetal outcomes.
Results: Opioid use was fourfold greater among HIV-positive pregnant women compared with their HIV-negative counterparts (odds ratio 4.0; 95% confidence interval 3.15–5.12). Relatively smaller but significant increases in the early onset of delivery, poor fetal growth, abortive pregnancy, and spontaneous abortion also were observed in association with HIV-positive status and opioid drug use during pregnancy.
Conclusions: An increased risk of negative maternal–fetal complications persists among HIV-positive women who use opioids during pregnancy. Focusing on predisposing factors and monitoring opioid dispensing may mitigate overuse or abuse in this vulnerable population.
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