Original Article

Outcomes of Clostridioides difficile in Patients with Vitamin D Deficiency: A Propensity-Matched National Inpatient Sample Analysis

Authors: Vijay Gayam, MD, FACP, Amrendra Kumar Mandal, MD, Chobufo Muchi Ditah, MD, Jasdeep Sidhu, MD, Venu Madhav Konala, MD, Sreedhar Adapa, MD, Srikanth Naramala, MD, Pavani Garlapati, MD


Objectives: We aimed to determine in-hospital outcomes, length of hospital stay, and resource utilization in a contemporary cohort of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) and vitamin D deficiency (VDD).

Methods: The National Inpatient Sample database for 2016 and 2017 was used for data analysis using International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification/Procedure Coding System (ICD-10-CM/PCS) codes to identify the patients with the principal diagnosis of CDI and VDD. We assessed the all-cause in-hospital mortality, morbidity, length of hospital stay (LOS), and total costs between propensity-matched groups of CDI without VDD versus CDI with VDD.

Results: We identified 202,234 patients with CDI, 4515 of whom were patients with VDD and 197,719 of whom were without VDD. After propensity matching, there was no difference in the in-hospital mortality between the two groups (odds ratio [OR] 1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.58–4.3; P = 0.90). CDI with VDD has a higher odds of sepsis (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.3–1.9; P = 0.0), and peritonitis (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.4–3.8; P = 0.01). Mean LOS (5.9 ± 1.8 vs 5.4 ± 2, P < 0.01) and mean total charges ($11,500 vs $9971, P < 0.04) were higher in CDI with VDD. The factors affecting the LOS were acute coronary syndrome (P = 0.04), mechanical ventilation (P = 0.03), obesity (P = 0.004), acute kidney injury (P = 0.04), and sepsis (P = 0.05).

Conclusions: In this large cohort in a propensity-matched analysis, VDD does not increase the in-hospital mortality in CDI. VDD increases the odds of complications with a higher LOS and resource utilization. These findings may be clinically relevant to guide clinicians to routinely monitor vitamin D status and supplement in patients at risk of CDI.
Posted in: Infectious Disease111

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