Prevalence of Systemic Hypertension Among HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Young Adults in Baltimore, Maryland
AbstractObjectives: Adults with perinatally acquired human immunodeficiency virus (PHIV) infection may be at increased risk for nonacquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) diseases, including systemic hypertension (HTN). The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of HTN among young adults with PHIV compared with recently infected and uninfected young adults.
Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of young adults with PHIV, frequency matched on race and sex to a stratified random sample of young adults with nonperinatally acquired HIV (NPHIV) and HIV-uninfected young adults. All of the subjects were aged 18 to 29 years. HTN was defined as two systolic blood pressure measurements ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic ≥90 mm Hg at least 3 months apart and/or prescription for an antihypertensive medication. Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted prevalence odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between HIV infection and HTN.
Results: A total of 324 patients were included—108 per exposure group. The prevalence of HTN was 23% among individuals with PHIV, 10% among individuals with NPHIV, and 8% among HIV-uninfected patients. PHIV patients had 3.4 (95% CI 1.48–7.66) times the base odds of having HTN compared with HIV-uninfected patients, and 2.7 (95% CI 1.23–5.71) times the odds compared with NPHIV patients. By multivariable analysis, PHIV patients had 4.7 and 2.9 times the odds of having HTN compared with HIV-uninfected patients and NPHIV patients, respectively, after controlling for sex, race, and family history of hypertension.
Conclusions: Our findings suggest that HTN prevalence among PHIV young adults is significantly higher than sex- and race-matched NPHIV and HIV-uninfected patients of similar age.
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