Original Article

Procedural Anxiety, Pain Catastrophizing, and Procedure-Related Pain during EGD and Colonoscopy

Authors: Marco Lauriola, PhD, Manuela Tomai, PhD, Rossella Palma, MD, Gaia La Spina, MA, Anastasia Foglia, MA, Cristina Panetta, MD, Marilena Raniolo, MD, Stefano Pontone, MD, PhD

Abstract

Objectives: Although sedatives and analgesic drugs defuse anxiety and relieve pain, digestive endoscopy still is uncomfortable and painful for some patients. Identifying patients who tolerate digestive endoscopy less well remains difficult. The present study evaluated the relations between procedural anxiety, catastrophizing thoughts, and pain, using a prospective design and multimodal assessments of pain.

Methods: A total of 118 consecutive patients were assessed for procedural anxiety before endoscopy. During endoscopy, a doctor rated the patients’ pain behavior. Before discharge, the patients retrospectively rated endoscopy pain and related catastrophizing thoughts.

Results: Notwithstanding sedation, our study revealed large between-subject variability in pain. Catastrophizing thoughts mediated the relation between procedure-related pain observed by the doctor and pain intensity reported by the patient. Catastrophizing thoughts also mediated the effect of procedural anxiety. Our study showed that anxiety exacerbates endoscopy pain when the patient engages in ruminative thinking and feels unable to cope with unpleasant bodily sensations.

Conclusions: This study shows that catastrophizing thoughts account for between-subject differences in endoscopy pain. Rumination and helplessness but not magnification explain how procedural anxiety may evolve in a painful endoscopy experience. To the extent that one can address catastrophizing thoughts, endoscopy pain can be mitigated, especially for patients who are difficult to sedate.
Posted in: Gastroenterology19 Psychiatry2

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