1. Zimmet P, Alberti KG, Shaw J. Global and societal implications of the diabetes epidemic. Nature 2001;414:782-787.
2. Narayan KM, Boyle JP, Thompson TJ, et al. Lifetime risk for diabetes mellitus in the United States. JAMA 2003;290:1884-1890.
3. Cowie CC, Rust KF, Ford ES, et al. Full accounting of diabetes and pre-diabetes in the U.S. population in 1988Y1994 and 2005-2006. Diabetes Care 2009;32:287-294.
4. Stein CJ, Colditz GA. The epidemic of obesity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004;89:2522-2525.
5. Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Curtin LR, et al. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States, 1999Y2004. JAMA 2006;295:1549-1555.
6. Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Kit BK, et al. Prevalence of obesity and trends in the distribution of body mass index among US adults, 1999-2010. JAMA 2012;307:491-497.
7. Finkelstein EA, Khavjou OA, Thompson H, et al. Obesity and severe obesity forecasts through 2030. Am J Prev Med 2012;42:563-570.
8. Wang YC, McPherson K, Marsh T, et al. Health and economic burden of the projected obesity trends in the USA and the UK. Lancet 2011;378:815-825.
9. Guh DP, Zhang W, Bansback N, et al. The incidence of co-morbidities related to obesity and overweight: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Public Health 2009;9:88.
10. Field AE, Coakley EH, Must A, et al. Impact of overweight on the risk of developing common chronic diseases during a 10-year period. Arch Intern Med 2001;161:1581-1586.
11. Hu FB, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, et al. Diet, lifestyle, and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women. N Engl J Med 2001;345:790-797.
12. Mokdad AH, Ford ES, Bowman BA, et al. Prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and obesity-related health risk factors, 2001. JAMA 2003;289:76-79.
13. Must A, Spadano J, Coakley EH, et al. The disease burden associated with overweight and obesity. JAMA 1999;282:1523-1529.
14. Gregg EW, Cheng YJ, Cadwell BL, et al. Secular trends in cardiovascular disease risk factors according to body mass index in US adults. JAMA 2005;293:1868-1874.
15. Sullivan PW, Morrato EH, Ghushchyan V, et al. Obesity, inactivity, and the prevalence of diabetes and diabetes-related cardiovascular comorbidities in the U.S., 2000-2002. Diabetes Care 2005;28:1599-1603.
16. Sigal RJ, Kenny GP, Wasserman DH, et al. Physical activity/exercise and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2004;27:2518-2539.
17. Jung HS, Chang Y, Eun Yun K, et al. Impact of body mass index, metabolic health and weight change on incident diabetes in a Korean population. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2014;22:1880-1887.
18. de Mutsert R, Sun Q, Willett WC, et al. Overweight in early adulthood, adult weight change, and risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and certain cancers in men: a cohort study. Am J Epidemiol 2014;179:1353-1365.
19. Hu FB, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, et al. Diet, lifestyle, and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women. N Engl J Med 2001;345:790-797.
20. Coffey JT, Brandle M, Zhou H, et al. Valuing health-related quality of life in diabetes. Diabetes Care 2002;25:2238-2243.
21. Haffner SM, Lehto S, Rönnemaa T, et al. Mortality from coronary heart disease in subjects with type 2 diabetes and in nondiabetic subjects with and without prior myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 1998;339:229-234.
22. Astrup A, Finer N. Redefining type 2 diabetes: ‘diabesity’or ‘obesity dependent diabetes mellitus’? Obes Rev 2000;1:57-59.
24. Norris SL, Zhang X, Avenell A, et al. Long-term effectiveness of weight-loss interventions in adults with pre-diabetes: a review. Am J Prev Med 2005;28:126-139.
25. Appel LJ, Clark JM, Yeh HC, et al. Comparative effectiveness of weight-loss interventions in clinical practice. N Engl J Med 2011;365:1959-1968.
26. Tate DF, Jackvony EH, Wing RR. Effects of Internet behavioral counseling on weight loss in adults at risk for type 2 diabetes: a randomized trial. JAMA 2003;289:1833-1836.
28. American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes--2013. Diabetes Care 2013;36(Suppl 1):S11-S66.
29. Franz MJ, Bantle JP, Beebe CA, et al. Evidence-based nutrition principles and recommendations for the treatment and prevention of diabetes and related complications. Diabetes Care 2002;25:148-198.
30. Carter N, O’Driscoll M. Life begins at forty!: should the route to promoting exercise in elderly people also start in their forties? Physiotherapy 2000;86:85-93.
31. Patel D, Lambert EV, da Silva R, et al. Participation in fitness-related activities of an incentive-based health promotion program and hospital costs: a retrospective longitudinal study. Am J Health Promot 2011;25:341-348.
32. Rowland ML. Self-reported weight and height. Am J Clin Nutr 1990;52:1125-1133.
33. Palta M, Prineas RJ, Berman R, et al. Comparison of self-reported and measured height and weight. Am J Epidemiol 1982;115:223-230.
34. Winkelmayer WC, Schneeweiss S, Mogun H, et al. Identification of individuals with CKD from Medicare claims data: a validation study. Am J Kidney Dis 2005;46:225-232.