Human immunodeficiency virus-related cardiomyopathy is characterized by global left ventricular (LV) dysfunction commonly associated with biventricular dilation. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cardiomyopathy carries a poor prognosis, and the role of antiretroviral therapy in the reversal of heart failure is not very clear. We report two patients with HIV infection who presented with severe right ventricular (RV) dysfunction in the absence of pulmonary parenchymal, pulmonary arterial and left ventricular myocardial involvement. During the period of intensive antiretroviral therapy, the symptoms of right heart failure progressively and remarkably improved. This was accompanied by normalization of right ventricular size and RV function documented by repeat echocardiograms. Given that the serologic tests for opportunistic infections were negative, and the RV function improvement correlated with a decrement in the viral load, it is likely that the cardiomyopathy was due to direct infection by HIV. These cases illustrate that there can be isolated involvement of the right heart in the absence of lung, significant pulmonary vascular and left ventricular disease, and also that the antiretroviral therapy might reverse the cardiomyopathy.
* Isolated right heart failure can occur in patients with HIV infection due to cardiomyopathy.
* Reviewing the patient’s history is very important in the diagnostic evaluation of patients.
* Treatment with antiretroviral therapy might reverse human immunodeficiency virus-associated cardiomyopathy.
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