Issue - Southern Medical Association

Editorial

Timely Diagnosis and Disclosure of Alzheimer Disease Gives Patients Opportunities to Make Choices

More than 5.4 million Americans are known to be living with Alzheimer disease (AD). It is also the sixth leading cause of death in the United States. Bettelheim projected that “unless effective treatment and prevention can be found, by 2050 the number of Americans with dementias will triple to nearly…

Original Article

Dermatologists’ Awareness of and Screening Practices for Hepatitis B Virus Infection Before Initiating Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Inhibitor Therapy

Objective: The aim of the study was to assess dermatologists’ awareness of available guidelines and drug package insert information on the screening for and management of hepatitis B (HBV) infection in patients receiving tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitor (TNF-αI) drug therapies for dermatological disorders. Materials and Methods: An electronic descriptive cross-sectional…

Original Article

Risk Factors of Cellulitis Treatment Failure with Once-Daily Intravenous Cefazolin Plus Oral Probenecid

Objectives: Once-daily intravenous cefazolin with probenecid is used commonly to treat cellulitis. The primary objective of this study was to determine the risk factors of treatment failure with this regimen. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of adult outpatients with cellulitis who were initially treated with once-daily intravenous cefazolin…

Original Article

Differences in National Antiretroviral Prescribing Patterns Between Black and White Patients with HIV/AIDS, 1996-2006

Objectives: The benefit of improved health outcomes for blacks receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) lags behind that of whites. This project therefore sought to determine whether the reason for this discrepancy in health outcomes could be attributed to disparities in use of antiretroviral therapy between black and white patients…

Invited Commentary

HIV-Related Disparities: It Is Not All About HAART Accessibility

Simple is not always true or useful in medicine and in particular in public health, where most phenomena have multiple determinants; the lack of data could complicate the attempt to understand some epidemiological situations and leaves an open territory for debate. Studies performed since the first years of the AIDS…

Original Article

Prevalence of Atherosclerotic Plaque in Young and Middle-Aged Asymptomatic Individuals: The Bogalusa Heart Study

Objectives: To determine the prevalence of carotid and femoral artery atherosclerotic plaque in a community-based population of asymptomatic African American and white men and women, with an age range of 29 to 51 years, and the potential relations with cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: Between 2007 and 2010, 914 subjects, 58%…

Invited Commentary

Atherosclerosis-Challenging the Assumptions

Atherosclerosis is a condition in which an inner artery wall thickens as a result of the accumulation of fatty plaque. It is a chronic inflammatory condition enhanced by low-density-lipoproteins, white blood cells, and a variety of cytokines. Conventional wisdom regarding the resulting cardiovascular risk is that age, race, hypertension, diabetes,…

Original Article

Prevalence of Colorectal Cancer Screening Among a Multimorbid Rural Appalachian Population

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the relation among multiple morbidities and the prevalence of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among older adult Appalachian residents of Kentucky. This is the first known study to address multiple morbidities exclusively with a health-disparities population. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study…

Original Article

Factors Associated with Recently Transmitted Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strain MS0006 in Hinds County, Mississippi

Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate risk factors associated with tuberculosis (TB) transmission that was caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain MS0006 from 2004 to 2009 in Hinds County, Mississippi. Methods: DNA fingerprinting using spoligotyping, mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit, and IS6110-based restriction fragment length polymorphism of culture-confirmed cases…

Original Article

Neonates at Risk for Congenital Syphilis: Radiographic and Cerebrospinal Fluid Evaluations

Objective: To review the infants at risk for congenital syphilis (CS) and determine the optimal use of evaluations such as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL) test, and long bone radiography studies. Methods: A retrospective chart review of all of the infants at risk for CS from…

Review Article

Physical Activity Benefits and Risks on the Gastrointestinal System

This review evaluates the current understanding of the benefits and risks of physical activity and exercise on the gastrointestinal system. A significant portion of endurance athletes are affected by gastrointestinal symptoms, but most symptoms are transient and do not have long-term consequences. Conversely, physical activity may have a protective effect…

Invited Commentary

Benefits and Risks of Exercise on the Gastrointestinal System

Exercise has been shown to have beneficial effects on gastrointestinal motility and metabolism and has been advocated both as a first-line treatment and for the prevention of a variety of diseases affecting this organ system. The review article by Martin in this issue of the Journal provides a comprehensive overview…