1. Basaria S, Wahlstrom JT, Dobs A. Anabolic-androgenic steroid therapy in the treatment of chronic diseases. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001;86:5108–5117.
2. Wilson JD. Androgens, in Hardman JG, Limbird LE (eds): Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1996, pp 1441–1457.
3. Sturmi JE, Diorio DJ. Anabolic agents. Clin Sports Med 1998;17:261–282.
4. Dezelsky TL, Toohey JV, Shaw RS. Non-medical drug use behavior at five United States universities: a 15-year study. Bull Narc 1989;37:49–53.
5. US Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Inspector General-Richard P. Kusserow: Adolescent steroid use. Publication OEI-06–90–01080, February 1991.
6. DuRant RH, Rickert VI, Ashworth CS, et al. Use of multiple drugs among adolescents who use anabolic steroids. N Engl J Med 1993;328:922–926.
7. Stedman's Electronic Medical Dictionary v 4.0. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1998.
8. Rogol AD, Yesalis CE. Anabolic-androgenic steroids and athletes: what are the issues? J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1992;74:465–469.
9. Stone MH. Literature review: anabolic-androgenic steroid use by athletes. Natl Strength Conditioning Assoc J 1993;15:10–28.
10. Karila T, Hovatta O, Seppala T. Concomitant abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids and human chorionic gonadotrophin impairs spermatogenesis in power athletes. Int J Sports Med 2004;25:257–263.
11. Hartgens F, Kuipers H. Effects of androgenic-anabolic steroids in athletes. Sports Med2004;34:513–554.
12. No authors listed. Medical aspects of drug use in the gym. Drug Ther Bull 2004;42:1–5.
13. Tilley WD, Marcelli M, Wilson JD, et al. Characterization and expression of a cDNA encoding the human androgen receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1989;86:327–331.
14. Lombardo JA, Sickles RY. Medical and performance-enhancing effects of anabolic steroids.Psychiatr Ann 1992;22:19–23.
15. Haupt HA, Rovere GD. Anabolic steroids: a review of the literature. Am J Sports Med 1984;12:69–84.
16. Wilson JD. Androgen abuse by athletes. Endocr Rev 1988;9:181–199.
17. McPherron AC, Lee SJ. Double muscling in cattle due to mutations in the myostatin gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1997;94:12457–12461.
18. Gonzalez-Cadavid NF, Taylor WE, Yarasheski K, et al. Organization of the human myostatin gene and expression in healthy men and HIV-infected men with muscle wasting. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A1998;95:14938–14943.
19. Yarasheski KE, Bhasin S, Sinha-Hikim I, et al. Serum myostatin-immunoreactive protein is increased with muscle wasting and advanced age. Proceedings of the 81st Annual Meeting of The Endocrine Society, San Diego, CA, 1999, OR-9–2.
20. Shivji R, Bhasin S, Byhower F, et al. Myostatin and IGF-I and -2 expression in muscle wasting resulting from exposure to the microgravity environment of a space shuttle flight. Proceedings of the 81st Annual Meeting of The Endocrine Society, San Diego, CA, 1999, OR-32–3.
21. Congeni J, Millier S. Supplements and drugs used to enhance athletic performance. Pediatr Clin North Am 2002;49:435–461.
22. Clark AS, Henderson LP. Behavioral and physiological responses to anabolic-androgenic steroids.Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2003;27:413–436.
23. Lukas SE. Current perspectives on anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse. Trends Pharmacol Sci1993;14:61–67.
24. Bagatell CJ, Bremner WJ. Androgens in men: uses and abuses. N Engl J Med 1996;334:707–714.
25. Behre HM, Nieschlag E. Testosterone buciclate (20 Aet-1) in hypogonadal men: pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the new long-acting androgen ester. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1992;75:1204–1210.
26. Griffin JE, Wilson JD. Disorders of the testes and the male reproductive tract, in Wilson JD, Foster DW, Kronenberg HM, Larsen PR (eds): Williams Textbook of Endocrinology. Philadelphia, Saunders, 1998, ed 9, pp 819–876.
27. Foster ZJ, Housner JA. Anabolic-androgenic steroids and testosterone precursors: ergogenic AIDS and sport. Curr Sports Med Rep 2004;3:234–241.
28. Porcerelli JH, Sandler BA. Anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse and psychopathology. Psychiatr Clin North Am 1998;21:829–833.
29. Yesalis CE. Epidemiology and patterns of anabolic-androgenic steroid use. Psychiatr Ann1992;22:7–18.
30. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Sports Medicine and Fitness. Adolescents and anabolic steroids: a subject review. Pediatrics 1997;99:904–908.
31. Bahrke MS, Yesalis CE, Kopstein AN, et al. Risk factors associated with anabolic-androgenic steroid use among adolescents. Sports Med 2000;29:397–405.
32. Buckley WE, Yesalis CE, Friedl KE, et al. Estimated prevalence of anabolic steroid use among male high school seniors. JAMA 1988;260:3441–3445.
33. DuRant RH, Escobedo LG, Heath GW. Anabolic-steroid use, strength training, and multiple drug use among adolescents in the United States. Pediatrics 1995;96:23–28.
34. Scott DM, Wagner JC, Barlow TW. Anabolic steroid use among adolescents in Nebraska schools.Am J Health Syst Pharm 1996;53:2068–2072.
35. Terney R, McLain LG. The use of anabolic steroids in high school students. Am J Dis Child1990;144:99–103.
36. Yesalis CE, Barsukiewicz CK, Kopstein AN, et al. Trends in anabolic-androgenic steroid use among adolescents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1997;151:1197–1206.
37. Faigenbaum AD, Zaichkowsky LD, Gardner DE, et al. Anabolic steroid use by male and female middle school students. Pediatrics 1998;101:E6.
38. Brower KJ. Anabolic steroid abuse and dependence. Curr Psychiatry Rep 2002;4:377–387.
39. Congeni J, Millier S. Supplements and drugs used to enhance athletic performance. Pediatr Clin North Am 2002;49:435–461.
40. Pope HG, Katz DL. Psychiatric and medical effects of anabolic-androgenic steroid use: a controlled study of 160 athletes. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1994;51:375–382.
41. Dias JP. Adolescent substance abuse: Assessment in the office. Pediatr Clin North Am2002;49:269–300.
42. Kanayama G, Pope HG, Cohane G, et al. Risk factors for anabolic-androgenic steroid use among weightlifters: a case-control study. Drug Alcohol Depend 2003;71:77–86.
43. Kanayama G, Cohane GH, Weiss RD, et al. Past anabolic-androgenic steroid use among men admitted for substance abuse treatment: an underrecognized problem? J Clin Psychiatry 2003;64:156–160.
44. Karila TA, Karjalainen JE, Mantysaari MJ, et al. Anabolic androgenic steroids produce dose-dependent increase in left ventricular mass in power athletes, and this effect is potentiated by concomitant use of growth hormone. Int J Sports Med 2003;24:337–343.
45. Suttmann U, Ockenga J, Selberg O, et al. Incidence and prognostic value of malnutrition and wasting in human immunodeficiency virus-infected outpatients. J Acquired Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 1995;8:239–246.
46. Gurakar A, Caraceni P, Fagiuoli S, et al. Androgenic/anabolic steroid-induced intrahepatic cholestasis: a review with four additional case reports. J Okla State Med Assoc 1994;87:399–404.
47. Soe KL, Soe M, Gluud C. Liver pathology associated with the use of anabolic-androgenic steroids.Liver 1992;12:73–79.
48. Stimac D, Milic S, Dintinjana RD, et al. Androgenic/anabolic steroid-induced toxic hepatitis. J Clin Gastroenterol 2002;35:350–352.
49. Hartgens F, Reitjens G, Keizer HA, et al. Effects of androgenic-anabolic steroids on apolipoproteins and lipoprotein (a). Br J Sports Med 2004;38:253–259.
50. Urhausen A, Albers T, Kindermann W. Are the cardiac effects of anabolic steroid abuse in strength athletes reversible? Heart 2004;90:496–501.
51. Thompson PD, Cullinane EM, Sady SP, et al. Contrasting effects of testosterone and stanozolol on serum lipoprotein levels. JAMA 1989;261:1165–1168.
52. McNutt RA, Ferenchick GS, Kirlin PC, et al. Acute myocardial infarction in a 22-year-old world-class weight lifter using anabolic steroids. Am J Cardiol 1988;62:164.
53. Frankle MA, Eichberg R, Zachariah SB. Anabolic androgenic steroids and a stroke in an athlete: case report. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1988;69:632–633.
54. Ferenchick G, Schwartz D, Ball M, et al. Androgenic-anabolic steroid abuse and platelet aggregation: a pilot study in weight lifters. Am J Med Sci 1992;303:78–82.
55. Togna GI, Togna AR, Graziani M, et al. Testosterone and cocaine: vascular toxicity of their concomitant abuse. Thromb Res 2003;109:195–201.
56. Urhausen A, Torsten A, Wilfried K. Reversibility of the effects on blood cells, lipids, liver function and hormones in former anabolic-androgenic steroid abusers. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2003;84:369–375.
57. Laseter JT, Russell JA. Anabolic steroid-induced tendon pathology: a review of the literature. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1991;23:1–3.
58. Michna H. Tendon injuries induced by exercise and anabolic steroids in experimental mice. Int Orthop 1987;11:157–162.
59. Miles JW, Grana WA, Egle D, et al. The effect of anabolic steroids on the biochemical and histological properties of rat tendon. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1992;74:411–422.
60. Stannard JP, Bucknell AL. Rupture of the triceps tendon associated with steroid injections. Am J Sports Med 1993;21:482–485.
61. David HG, Green JT, Grant AJ, et al. Simultaneous bilateral quadriceps rupture: a complication of anabolic steroid abuse. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1995;77:159–160.
62. Visuri T, Lindholm H. Bilateral distal biceps tendon avulsions with use of anabolic steroids. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1994;26:941–944.
63. Shifren JL. The role of androgens in female sexual dysfunction. Mayo Clin Proc 2004;79(Suppl 4):S19–S24, 2004.
64. Pope HG, Katz DL. Psychiatric effects of anabolic steroids. Psychiatr Ann 1992;22:24–29.
65. Hall RCW. Psychiatric complications of anabolic steroid abuse. Psychosomatics In press.
66. Pope HG, Kanayama G, Ionescu-Pioggia M, Hudson JI. Anabolic steroid users' attitudes towards physicians. Addiction 2004;99:1189–1194.