Objectives: Recent epidemiological studies have shown that individuals with periodontitis have a significantly increased risk of developing coronary heart disease. In addition to conventional risk factors, dyslipidemia may be associated with this increased risk.
Methods: We measured concentration of lipids in patients with moderate to severe periodontitis before and 3, 6 and 12 months after local periodontal treatment. A total of 50 participants with periodontitis and 25 participants without periodontitis were included in the analyses. Lipoproteins were measured by using serological analyses of the Central Biochemical Laboratory in Clinical Center in Nis. Periodontal health indicators included the plaque index, gingival bleeding index, and periodontal disease status (defined by pocket depth and attachment loss). Patients were non-surgically treated with mechanical debridement of calculus once a week for 1 month.
Results: The results show a significant relation between indicators of poor periodontal status and serum level lipoproteins. Periodontal therapy resulted in a significant reduction of local inflammation and tissue destruction as reflected in reduced pocket depth and reduced bleeding indices. The levels of lipoproteins after therapy seemed to be lower than those reported before treatment in patients with periodontitis compared with healthy ones. Lipoproteins were significantly decreased after treatment (P < 0.005) except high-density lipoprotein cholesterol which was not significantly reduced (P > 0.05).
Conclusion: This pilot study shows that periodontal disease significantly affects the serum levels of lipoproteins and suggests that following successful periodontal treatment decreases serum lipid concentration. This study suggests also that lipoproteins are possible intermediate factors that may link periodontal disease to elevated cardiovascular risk.
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