1. McNaghten AD, Hanson DL, Jones JL, et al. Effects of antiretroviral therapy and opportunistic illness primary chemoprophylaxis on survival after AIDS diagnosis: Adult/Adolescent Spectrum of Disease Group. AIDS 1999;13:1687–1695.
2. Palella FJ, Delaney KM, Moorman AC, et al. Declining morbidity and mortality among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. N Engl J Med 1998;338:853–860.
3. Palella Jr, FJ Deloria-Knoll M, Chniel JS, et al. Survival benefit of initiating antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected persons in different CD4+ cell strata. Ann Intern Med 2003;138:620–626.
4. Phillips AN, Staszewski S, Weber R, et al. HIV viral load response to antiretroviral therapy according to the baseline CD4 cell count and viral load. JAMA 2001;286:2560–2567.
5. Kaplan JE, Hanson D, Dworkin MS, et al. Epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus-associated opportunistic infections in the United States in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis 2000;30(Suppl 1):S5–S14.
6. Hogg RS, Yip B, Chan KJ, et al. Rates of disease progression by baseline CD4 cell count and viral load after initiating triple-drug therapy. JAMA 2001;286:2568–2577.
7. Garcia PM, Kalish LA, Pitt J, et al. Maternal levels of plasma human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA and the risk of perinatal transmission. N Engl J Med 1999;341:394–402.
8. Mofenson LM, Lambert JS, Stiehm ER, et al. Risk factors for perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in women treated with zidovudine: Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study 185 Team. N Engl J Med 1999;341:385–393.
9. Operskalski EA, Stram DO, Busch MP, et al. Role of viral load in heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 by blood transfusion recipients: Transfusion Safety Study Group.Am J Epidemiol 1997;146:655–661.
10. Quinn TC, Wawer MJ, Sewankambo N, et al. Viral load and heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1: Rakai Project Study Group. N Engl J Med 2000;342:921–929.
11. Gupta P, Mellors J, Kingsley L, et al. High viral load in semen of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 infected men at all stages of disease and its reduction by therapy with protease and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. J Virol 1997;71:6271–6275.
12. Gulick RM, Mellors JW, Havlir D, et al. Treatment with indinavir, zidovudine, and lamivudine in adults with human immunodeficiency virus infection and prior antiretroviral therapy. N Engl J Med1997;337:734–739.
13. Cavert W, Notermans DW, Stakus K, et al. Kinetics of response in lymphoid tissues to antiretroviral therapy of HIV-1 infection. Science 1997;276:960–964.
14. Anderson DJ, O’Brien TR, Politch JA, et al. Effects of disease stage and zidovudine therapy on the detection of HIV type 1 in semen. JAMA 1992;267:2769–2774.
15. Vernazza PL, Gilliam BL, Dyer J, et al. Quantification of HIV in semen: correlation with antiretroviral treatment and immune status. AIDS 1997;11:987–993.
16. Vernazza PL, Gilliam BL, Flepp M, et al. Effect of antiviral treatment on the shedding of HIV-1 in semen. AIDS 1997;11:1249–1254.
17. Ghys PD, Fransen K, Diallo MO, et al. The associations between cervicovaginal HIV shedding, sexually transmitted diseases and immunosuppression in female sex workers in Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire.AIDS 1997;11:F85–F93.
18. Kreiss JK, Coombs R, Plummer F, et al. Isolation of human immunodeficiency virus from genital ulcers in Nairobi prostitutes. J Infect Dis 1989;160:380–384.
19. Schacker T, Ryncarz AJ, Goddard J, et al. Frequent recovery of HIV-1 from genital herpes simplex virus lesions in HIV-1 infected men. JAMA 1998;280:61–66.
20. Clemetson DB, Moss GB, Willerford DM, et al. Detection of HIV DNA in cervical and vaginal secretions: prevalence and correlates among women in Nairobi, Kenya. JAMA 1993;269:2860–2864.
21. Cohen MS, Hoffman IF, Royce RA, et al. Reduction of concentration of HIV-1 in semen after treatment of urethritis: implications for prevention of sexual transmission of HIV-1: AIDSCAP Malawi Research Group. Lancet 1997;349:1868–1873.
22. Grosskurth H, Mosha F, Todd J, et al. Impact of improved treatment of sexually transmitted diseases on HIV infection in rural Tanzania: randomised controlled trial. Lancet 1995;346:530–536.
23. Alwano-Edyegu MG, Marum E. Knowledge Is Power: Voluntary HIV Counseling and Testing in Uganda. 1999, UNAIDS: Geneva.
24. Allen S, Serufilira A, Bogaerts J, et al. Confidential HIV testing and condom promotion in Africa: impact on HIV and gonorrhea rates. JAMA 1992;268:3338–3343.
25. Cleary PD, Van Devanter N, Rogers TF, et al. Behavior changes after notification of HIV infection.Am J Public Health 1991;81:1586–1590.
26. Valleroy LA, MacKellar DA, Karon JM, et al. HIV prevalence and associated risk in young men who have sex with men: Young Men’s Survey Study Group. JAMA 2000;284:198–204.
27. Wenger NS, Kusseling FS, Beck K, et al. Sexual behavior of individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus: the need for intervention. Arch Intern Med 1994;154:1849–1854.
28. Kilmarx PH, Hamers FF, Peterman TA. Living with HIV: experience and perspectives of HIV-infected sexually transmitted disease clinic patients after posttest counseling. Sex Transm Dis 1998;25:28–37.
29. Hays RB, Paul J, Ekstrand M, et al. Actual versus perceived HIV status, sexual behaviors and predictors of unprotected sex among young gay and bisexual men who identify as HIV-negative, HIV-positive and untested. AIDS 1997;11:1495–1502.
30. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Guidelines for national human immunodeficiency virus case surveillance, including monitoring for human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. MMWR 1999;48:1–29.
31. Fleming P, et al. HIV Prevalence in the United States, 2000. Ninth Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. 2002. Seattle, WA.
32. Siegel K, Raveis VH, Gorey E. Barriers and pathways to testing among HIV-infected women. AIDS Educ Prev 1998;10:114–127.
33. Wenger NS, Kusseling FS, Beck K, et al. When patients first suspect and find out they are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus: implications for prevention. AIDS Care 1994;6:399–405.
34. Hutchinson CM, Wilson C, Reichart CA, et al. CD4 lymphocyte concentrations in patients with newly identified HIV infection attending STD clinics: potential impact on publicly funded health care resources. JAMA 1991;266:253–256.
35. Dybul M, Bolan R, Condoluci D, et al. Evaluation of initial CD4+ T cell counts in individuals with newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus infection, by sex and race, in urban settings. J Infect Dis 2002;185:1818–1821.
36. Samet JH, Retondo MJ, Freedberg KA, et al. Factors associated with initiation of primary medical care for HIV-infected persons. Am J Med 1994;97:347–353.
37. Katz MH, Bindman AB, Keane D, et al. CD4 lymphocyte count as an indicator of delay in seeking human immunodeficiency virus-related treatment. Arch Intern Med 1992;152:1501–1504.
38. Wortley PM, Chu SY, Diaz T, et al. HIV testing patterns: where, why, and when were persons with AIDS tested for HIV? AIDS 1995;9:487–492.
39. Castilla J, Sobrino P, De La Fuente L, et al. Late diagnosis of HIV infection in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy: consequences for AIDS incidence. AIDS 2002;16:1945–1951.
40. Klein D, Hurley LB, Merrill D, et al. Review of medical encounters in the 5 years before a diagnosis of HIV-1 infection: implications for early detection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2003;32:143–152.
41. Siegel K, Karus D, Raveis VH. Testing and treatment behaviour of HIV-infected women: white, African-American, Puerto Rican comparisons. AIDS Care 1997;9:297–309.
42. Samet JH, Freedberg KA, Stein MD, et al. Trillion virion delay: time from testing positive for HIV to presentation for primary care. Arch Intern Med 1998;158:734–740.
43. Perelson AS, Neumann AU, Markowitz M, et al. HIV-1 dynamics in vivo: virion clearance rate, infected cell life-span, and viral generation time. Science 1996;271:1582–1586.
44. Kirschner D, Webb G, Cloyd M. Model of HIV-1 disease progression based on virus induced lymph node homing and homing-induced apoptosis of CD4+ lymphocytes. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr2000;24:352–362.
45. Lang W, Perkins H, Anderson RE, et al. Patterns of T lymphocyte changes with human immunodeficiency virus infection: from seroconversion to the development of AIDS. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1989;2:63–69.
46. Samet JH, Freedberg KA, Savetsky JB, et al. Understanding delay to medical care for HIV infection: the long-term non-presenter. AIDS 2001;15:77–85.
47. Bacchetti P, Moss AR. Incubation period of AIDS in San Francisco. Nature 1989;338:251–253.
48. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1993 revised classification system for HIV infection and expanded surveillance case definition for AIDS among adolescents and adults. MMWR 1992;41:(no. RR-17).
49. Janssen RS, Holtgrave DR, Valdiserri RO, et al. The Serostatus Approach to Fighting the HIV Epidemic: prevention strategies for infected individuals. Am J Public Health 2001;91:1019–1024.
50. Stringer EM, Stringer JS, Cliver SP, et al. Evaluation of a new testing policy for human immunodeficiency virus to improve screening rates. Obstet Gynecol 2001;98:1104–1108.
51. Biber CL, Jaker MA, Kloser P, et al. A study of sex differences in presentation for care of HIV. AIDS Patient Care STDs 1999;13:103–110.
52. Sorvillo F. et al. Early HIV detection: successes and failures. 12th World AIDS Conference. 1998. Geneva.
53. Shapiro MF, Morton SC, McCaffrey DF, et al. Variations in the care of HIV-infected adults in the United States: results from the HIV Cost and Services Utilization Study. JAMA 1999;281:2305–2315.
54. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Late versus early testing of HIV: 16 sites, United States, 2000-2003. MMWR 2003;52:581–586.
55. Simon PA, Weber M, Ford WL, et al. Reasons for HIV antibody test refusal in a heterosexual sexually transmitted disease clinic population. AIDS 1996;10:1549–1553.
56. Valdiserri RO, Moore M, Gerber AR, et al. A study of clients returning for counseling after HIV testing: implications for improving rates of return. Public Health Rep 1993;108:12–18.
57. Wiley DJ, Frerichs RR, Ford WL, et al. Failure to learn human immunodeficiency virus test results in Los Angeles public sexually transmitted disease clinics. Sex Transm Dis 1998;25:342–345.
58. Turner BJ, Cunningham WE, Duan N, et al. Delayed medical care after diagnosis in a US national probability sample of persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Arch Intern Med2000;160:2614–2622.
59. Schwarcz SK, Spitters C, Ginsberg MM, et al. Predictors of human immunodeficiency virus counselling and testing among sexually transmitted disease clinic patients. Sex Transm Dis1997;24:347–352.
60. Grinstead OA, Peterson JL, Faigeles B, et al. Antibody testing and condom use among heterosexual African Americans at risk for HIV infection: the National AIDS Behavioral Surveys. Am J Public Health 1997;87:857–859.
61. Rotheram-Borus MJ, et al. Risk acts, health care, and medical adherence among HIV+ youths in care over time. AIDS Behav 1997;1:43–52.
62. Guenter CD, Gill MJ. A population with short delay from diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus to medical care. Arch Intern Med 1999;159:758–759.
63. Zingmond DS, Wenger NS, Crystal S, et al. Circumstances at HIV diagnosis and progression of diseases in older HIV-infected Americans. Am J Public Health 2001;91:1117–1120.
64. Solomon L, Stein M, Flynn C, et al. Health services use by urban women with or at risk for HIV-1 infection: the HIV Epidemiology Research Study (HERS). J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol1998;17:253–261.
65. Ungaro AB, et al. CD4+ T lymphocyte counts of HIV infected women seeking an anonymous counseling/testing service in Sao Paulo, Brazil. 12th World AIDS Conference. 1998, Geneva.
66. Solomon L, Moore J, Gleghorn J, et al. HIV testing behaviors in a population of inner-city women at high risk for HIV infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 1996;13:267–272.
67. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Advancing HIV Prevention: New strategies for a changing epidemic: United States, 2003. MMWR 2003;52:329–332.
68. Sy FS, Rhodes SD, Choi ST, et al. The acceptability of oral fluid testing for HIV antibodies: a pilot study in gay bars in a predominantly rural state. Sex Transm Dis 1998;25:211–215.
69. Health Resources and Services Administration, 2004. Available at: http://www.hrsa.gov
. Accessed on March 27, 2006.
70. Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Financing HIV/AIDS care: A quilt with many holes. HIV/AIDS Policy Issue Brief. May 004, page 7. Available at: http://www.kff.org
. Accessed on March 27, 2006.